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 Burns - Assessment

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مُساهمةموضوع: Burns - Assessment   الخميس مارس 31, 2011 7:07 pm

Burns - Assessment and Management

A burn is an injury caused by thermal, chemical,
electrical, or radiation energy. A scald is a burn caused by contact
with a hot liquid or steam but the term 'burn' is often used to include
scalds.1

Most
burns heal without any problems but complete healing in terms of
cosmetic outcome is often dependent on appropriate care, especially
within the first few days after the burn. Most simple burns can be
managed in primary care but complex burns and all major burns warrant a
specialist and skilled multidisciplinary approach for a successful
clinical outcome.2
Epidemiology

  • UK admission rate 0.29 per 1,000 with burns or smoke inhalation (see separate article Inhalation Injury).
  • In the UK it is estimated that about 250,000 people each year present to primary care teams with burn injuries.1
  • The number of burns-related deaths in the UK averages 300 a year.2

Risk factors


  • Highest rates are seen in children under the age of 5 and the elderly over the age of 75.3
  • About 50% of burns and scalds occur in the kitchen.1

Assessment

  • Assess airway, breathing, circulation, disability, exposure (prevent hypothermia) and the need for fluid resuscitation. Also assess severity of burns and conscious level.4,5
  • Establish the cause: consider nonaccidental injury.
  • Assess
    for associated injuries: associated injuries may be sustained while the
    victim attempts to escape the fire. Explosions may throw the patient
    some distance and result in internal injures or fractures.
  • It is essential that the time of the burn injury be established.
  • Burns sustained within an enclosed space suggest possible inhalation injury.
  • Pre-existing illnesses, drug therapy, allergies and drug sensitivities are also important.
  • Establish the patient's tetanus immunisation status.
  • Body surface area: Rule of Nines:

    • The
      adult body is divided into anatomical regions that represent 9%, or
      multiples of 9%, of the total body surface. Therefore 9% each for the
      head and each upper limb. 18% each for each lower limb, front of trunk
      and back of trunk.
    • The palmar surface of the patient's hand, including the fingers, represents approximately 1% of the patient's body surface.
    • Body
      surface area differs considerably for children - the Lund and Browder
      chart takes into account changes in body surface area with age and
      growth.2
    • If not available:

      • For children <1 year: head = 18%, leg = 14%
      • For children >1 year: add 0.5% to leg, subtract 1% from head, for each additional year until adult values are attained


  • Depth
    of burn (previously described as first-degree, second-degree and
    third-degree burns). Burn wounds are dynamic and need reassessment in
    the first 24-72 hours because depth can increase as a result of
    inadequate treatment or superadded infection. Burns can be superficial
    in some areas but deeper in other areas:2

    • Epidermal
      (superficial partial-thickness): red, glistening, pain, absence of
      blisters and brisk capillary refill. Not life-threatening and normally
      heal within a week without scarring.
    • Superficial dermal: pale
      pink or mottled appearance with associated swelling and small blisters.
      The surface may have a weeping, wet appearance and is extremely
      hypersensitive. Brisk capillary refill. Heal in 2-3 weeks with minimal
      scarring and full functional recovery.
    • Deep dermal: blistering,
      dry, blotchy cherry red, doesn't blanch, no capillary refill and reduced
      or absent sensation. 3-8 weeks to heal with scarring, may require
      surgical treatment for best functional recovery.
    • Full-thickness
      (third-degree): dry, white or black, no blisters, absent capillary
      refill and absent sensation. Requires surgical repair and grafting.
    • Fourth-degree: includes subcutaneous fat, muscle, and perhaps bone. Requires reconstruction and, often, amputation.

  • Circumferential extremity burns: assess status of distal circulation, checking for cyanosis,
    impaired capillary refilling or progressive neurological signs.
    Assessment of peripheral pulses in burn patients is best performed with a
    Doppler ultrasound.
  • Baseline determination for the major burn patient:

    • Blood: full blood count, type and crossmatch, carboxyhaemoglobin, serum glucose, electrolytes, and pregnancy test in all females of childbearing age. Arterial blood gases.
    • Chest X-ray. Other X-rays may be indicated for associated injuries.
    • Cardiac monitoring: dysrhythmias may be the first sign of hypoxia and electrolyte or acid-base abnormalities.
    • Circulation: severely burned patients may have hypovolaemic shock:

      • Blood pressure may be difficult to obtain and may be unreliable.
      • Monitoring
        hourly urinary outputs reliably assesses circulating blood volume and
        so an indwelling urinary catheter should be inserted.



Management of minor burns2

  • Clean burns with soap and water, or a dilute water-based disinfectant to remove loose skin.
  • All blisters should be deroofed to help assess depth of burn (apart from isolated lax blisters less than 1 cm2 in area which can be left alone).
  • Nonadhesive dressing, with gauze padding is usually effective, but biological dressings are better, especially for children.
  • Dressings should be examined at 48 hours to reassess the burn, including depth.
  • Dressings on superficial partial thickness burns can be changed after 3-5 days in the absence of infection.
  • If infection occurs, daily wound inspection and dressing change is required.

Management of major burnsThe initial treatment of burns needs to include the following possible injuries:

  • Direct thermal injury producing upper airway oedema and/or obstruction
  • Inhalation
    of products of combustion (carbon particles) and toxic fumes, leading
    to chemical tracheobronchitis, oedema, and pneumonia
  • Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning

Immediate management


  • Airway:

    • The
      airway above the glottis is very susceptible to obstruction because of
      exposure to heat. The clinical presentation of inhalation injury may be
      subtle and often does not appear in the first 24 hours.
    • Clinical indications of inhalation injury include:

      • Face and/or neck burns.
      • Singeing of the eyebrows and around the nose.
      • Carbon deposits and acute inflammatory changes in the oropharynx.
      • Carbon-particles seen in sputum.
      • Hoarseness.
      • History of impaired awareness, e.g. alcohol or head injury, and/or confinement in a burning environment.
      • Explosion, with burns to head and torso.
      • Carboxyhaemoglobin level greater than 10% if the patient is involved in a fire.

    • Management of acute inhalation injury:

      • Early management may require endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation.
      • Transfer to a burn centre.
      • Stridor is an indication for immediate endotracheal intubation.
      • Circumferential burns of the neck may lead to swelling of the tissues around the airway and so require early intubation.


  • Stop the burning process:

    • Remove all clothing - adherent synthetic clothing and tar should be actively cooled with water, and left for formal debridement.
    • Dry chemical powders should be carefully brushed from the wound.
    • Rinse
      the involved body surface areas with copious amounts of tap water. Cool
      the burn with tepid water for up to 20 minutes. Great care is required
      as cooling may cause hypothermia, especially in children,4 and those with extensive burns - and may worsen shock.
    • Remove constricting clothing and jewellery before covering the patient with warm, clean and dry linens to prevent hypothermia.

  • Breathing:

    • Arterial blood gas determinations should be obtained as a baseline but arterial PO2 does not reliably predict CO poisoning. Therefore, baseline carboxyhaemoglobin levels should be obtained, and 100% oxygen should be administered.
    • Elevation
      of the head and chest by 20 to 30 degrees reduces neck and chest wall
      oedema. If a full-thickness burn of the chest wall leads to severe
      restriction of the chest wall motion, chest wall escharotomy (burn incised into subcutaneous fat and underlying soft tissue; no anaesthetic is required) may be required.
    • Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning: has a much greater affinity than oxygen for haemoglobin and so displaces oxygen.

      • Assume CO exposure in patients burned in enclosed areas.
      • Diagnosis of CO poisoning is made primarily from a history of exposure.
      • Patients with CO levels of less than 20% usually have no physical symptoms.
      • Higher CO levels may result in headache and nausea, confusion, coma and death.
      • CO dissociates very slowly but this is increased by breathing high-flow oxygen via a non-rebreathing mask.


  • Intravenous access and fluid replacement:

    • Large-calibre intravenous lines must be established immediately in a peripheral vein.
    • Any
      adult with burns affecting more than 15% of the body surface area or a
      child with more than 10% of body surface area affected requires fluid
      resuscitation.
    • Resuscitation fluids required in the first 24 hours from the time of injury:2

      • Adults:

        • 3-4
          ml (3 ml in superficial or partial thickness burns, 4 ml in full
          thickness burns or those with associated inhalation injury) of
          Hartmann's solution/kg body weight/% total body surface area.
        • Half of this calculated volume is given in the first eight hours and the other half is given over the following 16 hours.

      • Children:

        • Resuscitation
          fluid as above plus maintenance (0.45% saline with 5% dextrose) which
          should be titrated against nasogastric feeds or oral intake:
        • 100 ml/kg for first 10 kg body weight plus 50 ml/kg for the next 10 kg body weight plus 20 ml/kg for each extra kg.



  • Ensure adequate analgesia: strong opiates should be used.
  • Prevent hypothermia.
  • Management of the burns:2

    • Prompt
      irrigation with running cool tap water for 20 minutes provides
      appropriate cooling. Very cold water should be avoided (causes
      vasoconstriction and worsens tissue ischaemia and local oedema).
      Chemical burns may need longer periods of irrigation.
    • Dressings help relieve pain and keep the area clean but avoid circumferential wrapping as can cause constriction.
    • All patients with facial burns or burns in an enclosed environment should be assessed by an anaesthetist for early intubation.
    • For
      full thickness circumferential burns, escharotomy may be required to
      avoid respiratory distress or reduced circulation to the limbs as a
      result of constriction.

  • Transfer to a burns centre or other appropriate care centre as indicated.

Referral to a specialist burns unit

All complex injuries should be referred, particularly:2

  • Age under 5 years or over 60 years.
  • Site
    of injury: face, hands, perineum, any flexure (including neck or
    axilla) and circumferential dermal burns or full thickness burn of the
    limb, torso, or neck.
  • Inhalation injury.
  • Mechanism of injury:

    • Chemical burns affecting over 5% total body surface area (over 1% for hydrofluoric acid burns)
    • Exposure to ionising radiation
    • High pressure steam injury
    • High tension electrical injury

  • Suspected nonaccidental injury in a child.
  • Large affected area:

    • Aged under 16 years: over 5% total body surface area affected
    • Aged 16 years or older: over 10% total body surface area affected

  • Coexisting conditions, e.g. serious medical conditions, pregnancy or associated fractures, head injury, or crush injuries.

Further management

  • Circulatory
    insufficiency caused by a circumferentially burned limb is best
    relieved by escharotomy. Escharotomies are usually not required within
    the first 6 hours of burn injury.
  • Fasciotomy: seldom required, but may be necessary to restore circulation for patients with associated skeletal trauma, crush injury, high-voltage electrical injury or burns involving tissue beneath the investing fascia.
  • Gastric tube insertion: if nausea, vomiting, abdominal distention, or if burns involve more than 20% of the total body surface area.
  • Analgesia and sedation:

    • Severely
      burned patients may be restless and anxious from hypoxaemia or
      hypovolaemia rather than pain. The patient then responds better to
      oxygen or increased fluid administration rather than to narcotic
      analgesics or sedatives that may mask the signs of hypoxaemia or
      hypovolaemia.
    • Intravenous narcotic analgesics and sedatives may be administered in small, frequent doses.

  • Wound care:

    • Partial-thickness
      (second-degree) burns are painful when air currents pass over the
      burned surface. Gently covering the burn with clean linen relieves the
      pain and deflects air currents.
    • Do not break blisters or apply an antiseptic agent.
    • Any applied medication must be removed before appropriate antibacterial topical agents can be applied.
    • Application of cold compresses may cause hypothermia. Do not apply cold water to a patient with extensive burns.

  • Antibiotics: should be reserved for the treatment of infection.
  • Tetanus: determination of immunisation status is very important.
  • Full-thickness
    burns: require excision and grafting unless they are less than 1 cm in
    diameter. Grafting is required within three weeks in order to minimise
    scarring. Therefore, early referral is essential.6
  • After healing:2

    • The area of healed burns should be moisturised and massaged to reduce dryness.
    • A high factor sun cream should be used to prevent further damage and pigmentation changes.


Chemical burns

  • Can result from exposure to acidic, alkaline or petroleum products.
  • Alkali burns tend to be deeper and more serious than acid burns.
  • Immediately
    flush away the chemical with large amounts of water for at least 20 to
    30 minutes (longer for alkali burns). Alkali burns to the eye require
    continuous irrigation during the first 8 hours after the burn.
  • If dry powder is still present on the skin, brush it away before irrigation with water.

Electrical burns

  • Are often more serious than they appear on the surface.
  • Rhabdomyolysis results in myoglobin release, which can cause acute renal failure. If the urine is dark, start therapy for myoglobinuria immediately.
  • Fluid administration should be increased to ensure a urinary output of at least 100 ml/hour in the adult.
  • Metabolic acidosis should be corrected by maintaining adequate perfusion and adding sodium bicarbonate.

Complications1

  • Respiratory distress from smoke inhalation or a severe chest burn
  • Fluid loss, hypovolaemia and shock
  • Infection
  • Increased metabolic rate leading to acute weight loss
  • Increased plasma viscosity and thrombosis
  • Vascular insufficiency and distal ischaemia from a circumferential burn of limb or digit
  • Muscle damage from an electrical burn may be severe even with minimal skin injury; rhabdomyolysis may cause renal failure
  • Poisoning from inhalation of noxious gases released by burning (e.g. cyanide poisoning due to smouldering plastics)
  • Haemoglobinuria and renal damage
  • Scarring
    and possible psychological consequences. Hypertrophic scarring is more
    common following deeper burns treated by surgery and skin grafting than
    with superficial burns2

Prognosis

  • Will depend on depth of burn and body surface area affected.
  • Superficial burns usually heal within two weeks without surgery.2
  • Risk factors for death include age over 60 years, more than 40% of body surface area affected and inhalation injury.2
  • Death may result from severe extensive burns or electric shock.

PreventionThere are many important aspects of prevention of burns, including:

  • Safety in the workplace.
  • Safety in the home, including regularly checking smoke alarms.
  • Good parenting to protect children.
  • Care of the frail elderly and the socially isolated.
  • Prevention
    of sunburn: appropriate duration and timing of sunbathing, sun
    protection creams, and regulation of tanning booths. See separate
    article on sunburn.





The heart hides what you can’t say but the eyes say what you try to hide


علمنى ازاى احبه ومعه اعيش بس ازاى اعيش من غيره ده اللى معلمنيش





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الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
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عدد المساهمات : 301
تاريخ التسجيل : 20/08/2010
العمر : 25


مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Burns - Assessment   الخميس مارس 31, 2011 7:17 pm

تسلم يا كبير

كويس انا لسه هنزل burnا
الاسبوع الجاى
بتيجى انت ف الوقت الصح
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
 
Burns - Assessment
استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
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