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مُساهمةموضوع: موسوعه الادويه الشامله   السبت أكتوبر 16, 2010 9:06 pm

هاي ايفري باضي
انا عندي فوكيره كده بس يارب يارب تعجبكم علشان هي بجد هتساعدنا كتير جدا في الكليه
خصوصا في سنه تانيه دي علشان بجد الموضوع ده بيشلني بصراحه كل مره اعمل فيها شيت
هو الموضوع ان كل حد عارف دوا معين يدخل يضيفه هنا
dose.route.side effects.action
كل حاجه عنه واهو هيكون برضه مرجع لينا في كل حاجه بعد كده
انا عارفه ان كل ماحد فينا يجي يعمل شيت بيطلعهم علشان يكتبهم يبقي يدخل يضيفهم بدل ما كل مره يدور ع نفس الدوا
لحد ما نفسه يتقطع بس هي دي الفكره ودا بصراحه بيحصل معايا واذا كلنا اتفقنا ع ده انا هثبت الموضوع
وطبعا سنه تالته ورابعه وامتياز هيساعدونا ماحنا اخواتهم برضه ولا ايه؟.؟؟؟؟؟؟؟
عموما انا مستنيه رايكم
سلام يا احلي اعضاء




الدنيا وما فيها بالناس اللي فيها متسواش دقيقه في حضنك اعيشها
حجات حاسه بيها وحجات نفسي فيها مقولتش عليها ولقياك حاسسها
اصلك متعرفشي لما تكون جمبي انا ايه بقولهولك بيني وبين نفسي وايه بيحصلي حتي وانا بصلي من قلبي بدعيلك اكتر ما بدعي لنفسي
ولقيت معاك كل اللي بحلم بيه واللي بفكر فيه واللي زمان ياما من زمان كان قلبي مستنيه
............................
في قلبي لمسني وبروحك حاسسني يا اجمل ما شافت وهتشوف عنيا
مفيش حد زيك بيفهمني زيك مفيش حد غيرك حنين عليا
***********
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انت كالدمعه في عيني ..اخاف ان تفر مني فافقدها
وان فرت فلن اتردد في وضع يدي لاحتضنها
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الكبير أوى
الكبير أوى
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: موسوعه الادويه الشامله   السبت أكتوبر 16, 2010 9:47 pm

بجد فكرة رائعه يا يويو
وسوف يتم تثبيت التوبيك لأهميته
وألف شكر





صمتى لا
يعني جهلي بما يدور حولى ,, ولكن ما يدور حولى لا يستحق الكلام !





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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: موسوعه الادويه الشامله   الثلاثاء نوفمبر 09, 2010 12:20 am

What is Zantac?






Zantac (ranitidine) belongs to a group of drugs called histamine-2 blockers. Zantac works by reducing the amount of acid your stomach produces.
Zantac is used to treat and prevent ulcers in the stomach and intestines. It also treats conditions in which the stomach produces too much acid, such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Zantac also treats gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and other conditions in which acid backs up from the stomach into the esophagus, causing heartburn.
Zantac may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide

Important information about Zantac

Using Zantac may increase your risk of developing pneumonia. Symptoms of pneumonia include chest pain, fever, feeling short of breath, and coughing up green or yellow mucus. Talk with your doctor about your specific risk of developing pneumonia.
Do not use Zantac if you are allergic to ranitidine.
Ask a doctor or pharmacist if it is safe for you to take this medicine if you have kidney disease, liver disease, or porphyria.
Heartburn is often confused with the first symptoms of a heart attack. Seek emergency medical attention if you have chest pain or heavy feeling, pain spreading to the arm or shoulder, nausea, sweating, and a general ill feeling.
Zantac granules and effervescent tablets must be dissolved in water before you take them. Your doctor may recommend an antacid to help relieve pain. Carefully follow your doctor's directions about the type of antacid to use, and when to use it. Avoid drinking alcohol. It can increase the risk of damage to your stomach. It may take up to 8 weeks of using Zantac before your ulcer heals. For best results, keep using the medication as directed. Talk with your doctor if your symptoms do not improve after 6 weeks of treatment
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose

What should I avoid while taking Zantac?

Avoid drinking alcohol. It can increase the risk of damage to your stomach
the most common side effects of Zantac include:

· Headache
· Constipation
· Diarrhea
· Upset stomach (nausea) or vomiting
· Abdominal pain (stomach pain)
· Rash.

Side Effects to Report
There are a number of side effects with Zantac that you should report to your healthcare provider.
These include but are not limited to:

· Confusion, agitation, or hallucinations
· Depression (see Zantac and Depression)
· Heart problems, including:

o Fast heart rate (tachycardia)
o Slow heart rate (bradycardia)
o Abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias)

· Symptoms of liver problems or hepatitis, including:

o Yellowing of the eyes or skin
o Pain in the upper-right side of the abdomen
o Dark urine

· Angioedema (life-threatening swelling of the throat and mouth)
· Signs of an allergic reaction, including:

o An unusual rash
o Hives
o Itching
o Wheezing
o Trouble breathing
o Swelling of the mouth or throat





الدنيا وما فيها بالناس اللي فيها متسواش دقيقه في حضنك اعيشها
حجات حاسه بيها وحجات نفسي فيها مقولتش عليها ولقياك حاسسها
اصلك متعرفشي لما تكون جمبي انا ايه بقولهولك بيني وبين نفسي وايه بيحصلي حتي وانا بصلي من قلبي بدعيلك اكتر ما بدعي لنفسي
ولقيت معاك كل اللي بحلم بيه واللي بفكر فيه واللي زمان ياما من زمان كان قلبي مستنيه
............................
في قلبي لمسني وبروحك حاسسني يا اجمل ما شافت وهتشوف عنيا
مفيش حد زيك بيفهمني زيك مفيش حد غيرك حنين عليا
***********
***********

انت كالدمعه في عيني ..اخاف ان تفر مني فافقدها
وان فرت فلن اتردد في وضع يدي لاحتضنها
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
ayosh
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عدد المساهمات : 481
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الموقع : علي ايدك الشمال وانت داخل ع اليمين هتلاقي كرسي اقعد عليه استناني وانا هفكر اذا كنت اجيلك او لا


مُساهمةموضوع: رد: موسوعه الادويه الشامله   الثلاثاء نوفمبر 09, 2010 12:31 am

clexan:::

How does it work?

Clexane injection contains the active ingredient enoxaparin, which is a type of medicine called a low molecular weight heparin. It is used to stop blood clots forming within the blood vessels.
Blood clots normally only form to stop bleeding that has occurred as a result of injury to the tissues. The clotting process is complicated and begins when blood cells called platelets clump together and produce chemicals that activate the clotting process. The final part of this process involves a substance called thrombin being activated to produce a protein called fibrin. Fibrin binds the platelets together, forming a blood clot. This is the body’s natural way of repairing itself.
Sometimes, however, a blood clot can form abnormally within the blood vessels. This is known as a thrombus. It can be dangerous because the clot may detach and travel in the bloodstream, where it becomes known as an embolus. The embolus may eventually get lodged in a blood vessel, thereby blocking the blood supply to a vital organ such as the heart, brain or lungs. This is known as a thromboembolism.
Some people have an increased tendency for blood clots to form within the blood vessels. This is usually due to a disturbance in the blood flow within the blood vessels. For example, in coronary artery disease, fatty deposits (atherosclerosis) on the walls of the coronary arteries can disrupt the blood flow, giving a tendency for platelets to clump together and start off the clotting process. When a clot has formed in a coronary artery this reduces the flow of blood to the heart and causes chest pain (angina). It can also result in a heart attack.
Slow blood flow in the leg and pelvic veins can also result in clots forming in these veins (deep vein thrombosis). These clots can break off and travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism). Being immobile for long periods of time, for example due to a severe medical condition or following surgery, can increase the risk of these types of blood clot.
Enoxaparin is used to prevent and treat these types of abnormal blood clots. It works by inactivating thrombin in the clotting process described above. This stops the formation of fibrin, the essential component of blood clots. The medicine is administered by injection under the skin (subcutaneous injection).
Enoxaparin can also be used to prevent blood clotting when it is filtered through a kidney dialysis machine.


What is it used for?



  • Treatment of blood clots in the veins of the leg (deep vein thrombosis).
  • Treatment of blood clots that travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
  • Preventing these types of blood clots (thromboembolic disorders), particularly following general surgery or surgery on the bones (orthopaedic surgery), or in people bedridden due to illness.
  • Treating blood clots in the coronary arteries in unstable angina and heart attack (myocardial infarction).
  • Preventing blood from clotting when it is filtered through an 'artificial kidney' (haemodialysis) machine as part of the management of kidney failure.

Warning!



  • During treatment with this medicine you should have regular blood tests to monitor the numbers of blood cells called platelets in your blood.
  • Your doctor may also want to monitor the level of potassium in your blood while you are having this medicine, particularly if treatment lasts for longer than 7 days.

Use with caution in



Not to be used in



This medicine should not be used if you are allergic to one or any of its ingredients. Please inform your doctor or pharmacist if you have previously experienced such an allergy.

If you feel you have experienced an allergic reaction, stop using this medicine and inform your doctor or pharmacist immediately.
Pregnancy and breastfeeding


Certain medicines should not be used during pregnancy or breastfeeding. However, other medicines may be safely used in pregnancy or breastfeeding providing the benefits to the mother outweigh the risks to the unborn baby. Always inform your doctor if you are pregnant or planning a pregnancy, before using any medicine.

  • The safety of this medicine for use during pregnancy has not been established. It is not recommended for use in pregnancy unless considered essential by your doctor. It is not recommended for preventing blood clots in pregnant women with artificial heart valves. Seek medical advice from your doctor.
  • It is not known if this medicine passes into breast milk. Mothers who need treatment with this medicine should avoid breastfeeding their infants during the treatment. Seek further medical advice from your doctor.

Side effects


Medicines and their possible side effects can affect individual people in different ways. The following are some of the side effects that are known to be associated with this medicine. Just because a side effect is stated here does not mean that all people using this medicine will experience that or any side effect.

  • Bleeding.
  • Pain and irritation at the injection site.
  • Blood clots which form a solid swelling at the injection site (haematoma).
  • Decrease in the number of platelets in the blood (thrombocytopenia).
  • Major bleeding (haemorrhage), for example in the abdomen or inside the skull.
  • Alteration in results of liver function tests.
  • High blood potassium level (hyperkalaemia).
  • Death of skin cells (necrosis) at the site of injection.
  • Blood clots in the spinal cord (intraspinal haematoma) in people also having spinal or epidural anaesthesia.
  • Osteoporosis (a reduction in bone density leading to bones which may fracture easily) has occurred after long-term treatment with a similar medicine called heparin. It is possible that this could happen with Clexane.

The side effects listed above may not include all of the side effects reported by the drug's manufacturer.

For more information about any other possible risks associated with this medicine, please read the information provided with the medicine or consult your doctor or pharmacist.

How can this medicine affect other medicines?


It is important to tell your doctor or pharmacist what medicines you are already taking, including those bought without a prescription and herbal medicines, before you start treatment with this medicine. Similarly, check with your doctor or pharmacist before taking any new medicines while having treatment with this one, to ensure that the combination is safe.
There may be an increased risk of bleeding or increased time taken to stop bleeding, if this medicine is used in combination with medicines that affect blood clotting, such as the following:

  • antiplatelet ('blood-thinning') medicines, such as aspirin, dipyridamole, clopidogrel
  • clot-busting medicines (fibrinolytics) such as streptokinase, alteplase
  • non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen, diclofenac, naproxen
  • oral anticoagulants, such as warfarin, nicoumalone, phenindione.

There may be an increased risk of a rise in the amount of potassium in your blood if this medicine is used in combination with any of the following:

  • ACE inhibitors, eg captopril, lisinopril
  • ciclosporin
  • potassium-sparing diuretics, eg spironolactone, triamterene, amiloride
  • potassium supplements
  • potassium-containing salt substitutes.

The amount of potassium in your blood should be regularly monitored if you are taking any of these during treatment with this medicine




الدنيا وما فيها بالناس اللي فيها متسواش دقيقه في حضنك اعيشها
حجات حاسه بيها وحجات نفسي فيها مقولتش عليها ولقياك حاسسها
اصلك متعرفشي لما تكون جمبي انا ايه بقولهولك بيني وبين نفسي وايه بيحصلي حتي وانا بصلي من قلبي بدعيلك اكتر ما بدعي لنفسي
ولقيت معاك كل اللي بحلم بيه واللي بفكر فيه واللي زمان ياما من زمان كان قلبي مستنيه
............................
في قلبي لمسني وبروحك حاسسني يا اجمل ما شافت وهتشوف عنيا
مفيش حد زيك بيفهمني زيك مفيش حد غيرك حنين عليا
***********
***********

انت كالدمعه في عيني ..اخاف ان تفر مني فافقدها
وان فرت فلن اتردد في وضع يدي لاحتضنها
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
ayosh
ملكة المنتدى ومشرفة الفرقة الثانية
ملكة المنتدى ومشرفة الفرقة الثانية
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عدد المساهمات : 481
تاريخ التسجيل : 20/08/2010
العمر : 25
الموقع : علي ايدك الشمال وانت داخل ع اليمين هتلاقي كرسي اقعد عليه استناني وانا هفكر اذا كنت اجيلك او لا


مُساهمةموضوع: رد: موسوعه الادويه الشامله   الثلاثاء نوفمبر 09, 2010 12:40 am

sandostatin

How does it work?

Sandostatin injection contains the active ingredient octreotide, which is a type of medicine called a somatostatin analogue. It is similar to a naturally occurring hormone in the body called somatostatin. Somatostatin is produced in various parts of the body, including the brain, gut and pancreas. It prevents the release of other hormones found in the body, such as growth hormone and insulin.
Octreotide is used to relieve the symptoms of gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) tumours. Most tumours of this type develop in the organs of the digestive system. They usually start in the cells of the stomach (gastro), intestines (entero) and the pancreas. These areas of the body produce various hormones, and tumours that grow in these areas often cause too much of a certain hormone to be produced. The type of hormone overproduced depends on the type of gland that is affected by the tumour.
The different types of GEP tumours are named after cells where they develop. Insulinomas occur in the pancreas, causing excessive amounts of insulin to be produced. This can cause a fall in blood sugar level (hypoglycaemia). Glucagonomas also occur in the pancreas, but these cause excessive amounts of glucagon to be produced. Glucagon increases blood sugar and tumours of this type can cause symptoms of diabetes.
Gastrinomas occur in the stomach, causing excessive amounts of gastrin to be produced. Gastrin causes the production of stomach acid. If too much gastric acid is produced this can lead to ulcers in the stomach, oesophagus and small intestine. VIPomas usually occur in the pancreas and produce too much of a substance called vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). This can cause watery diarrhoea.
Carcinoid tumours are usually found in the intestines. They can produce excessive amounts of the hormone serotonin. The serotonin causes various symptoms, including diarrhoea, that together are known as carcinoid syndrome.
Octreotide mimics the action of natural sandostatin and so decreases the production of these types of hormones. Octreotide only relieves the symptoms of these hormone-producing tumours, it does not cure the tumour.
Octreotide is also used to treat acromegaly, which is a condition characterised by enlarged facial features, hands and feet, that results from excessive production of growth hormone by a tumour in the pituitary gland. Octreotide decreases the production of the growth hormone and so treats the symptoms of the condition, however, again it does not cure the tumour.
For acromegaly, this medicine is used for short-term treatment prior to pituitary surgery. It can also be used for long-term treatment in those who are inadequately controlled by pituitary surgery or radiotherapy, in the interim period until radiotherapy becomes effective, or in people for whom surgery is inappropriate.
Sandostatin is a short-acting injection of octreotide that is usually given under the skin (subcutaneously) up to three times a day, depending on the condition being treated. Either you or a family member can be taught to give the injection.

What is it used for?



  • Relief of symptoms caused by hormone-producing tumours of the gut, liver and pancreas (gastroenteropancreatic tumours)
  • A condition called acromegaly that results from excessive production of growth hormone by a tumour in the pituitary gland. Characteristics of this condition include enlarged facial features, hands and feet.
  • Preventing complications following surgery on the pancreas.

Warning!



  • For prolonged storage, Sandostatin ampoules and multidose vials should be stored in a fridge between 2oC and 8oC. Do not freeze. For day-to-day use they may be stored at room temperature for up to two weeks. Protect from light.
  • People receiving long-term treatment with this medicine should have their thyroid function regularly monitored.
  • This medicine can cause gallstones. An ultrasound examination of the gall bladder is recommended before treatment is started and at regular 6 to 12 month intervals during treatment.

Use with caution in



Not to be used in



  • Allergy to any ingredient
This medicine should not be used if you are allergic to one or any of its ingredients. Please inform your doctor or pharmacist if you have previously experienced such an allergy.

If you feel you have experienced an allergic reaction, stop using this medicine and inform your doctor or pharmacist immediately.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Certain medicines should not be used during pregnancy or breastfeeding. However, other medicines may be safely used in pregnancy or breastfeeding providing the benefits to the mother outweigh the risks to the unborn baby. Always inform your doctor if you are pregnant or planning a pregnancy, before using any medicine.


  • Experience with this medicine during pregnancy is very limited. It is not recommended for use during pregnancy, unless considered essential by your doctor. Seek medical advice from your doctor.
  • Mothers who need treatment with this medicine should not breastfeed their infants. Discuss this with your doctor.

Side effects

Medicines and their possible side effects can affect individual people in different ways. The following are some of the side effects that are known to be associated with this medicine. Because a side effect is stated here, it does not mean that all people using this medicine will experience that or any side effect.


  • Pain, stinging, tingling, burning and swelling at site of injection
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Abdominal pain
  • Bloating
  • Diarrhoea
  • Reduced absorption of fat by the intestine resulting in fatty, pale and offensive smelling stools (steatorrhoea)
  • Gallstones
  • Allergic skin reactions
  • High blood glucose level (hyperglycaemia)
  • Low blood glucose level (hypoglycaemia)
  • Hair loss (alopecia)
  • Inflammation of the liver (hepatitis)
  • Inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis)
Side effects on the gut can be reduced by avoiding meals around the time of injection, ie timing the injections between meals or on going to bed. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for further advice.
The side effects listed above may not include all of the side effects reported by the drug's manufacturer.

For more information about any other possible risks associated with this medicine, please read the information provided with the medicine or consult your doctor or pharmacist.

How can this medicine affect other medicines?

It is important to tell your doctor or pharmacist what medicines you are already taking, including those bought without a prescription and herbal medicines, before you start treatment with this medicine. Similarly, check with your doctor or pharmacist before taking any new medicines while having treatment with this one, to ensure that the combination is safe.
Octreotide can decrease the absorption of the immunosuppressant ciclosporin from the gut and so can make it less effective. The dose of ciclosporin may need to be increased.
People with diabetes who are treated with this medicine may need lower doses of insulin or antidiabetic tablets




الدنيا وما فيها بالناس اللي فيها متسواش دقيقه في حضنك اعيشها
حجات حاسه بيها وحجات نفسي فيها مقولتش عليها ولقياك حاسسها
اصلك متعرفشي لما تكون جمبي انا ايه بقولهولك بيني وبين نفسي وايه بيحصلي حتي وانا بصلي من قلبي بدعيلك اكتر ما بدعي لنفسي
ولقيت معاك كل اللي بحلم بيه واللي بفكر فيه واللي زمان ياما من زمان كان قلبي مستنيه
............................
في قلبي لمسني وبروحك حاسسني يا اجمل ما شافت وهتشوف عنيا
مفيش حد زيك بيفهمني زيك مفيش حد غيرك حنين عليا
***********
***********

انت كالدمعه في عيني ..اخاف ان تفر مني فافقدها
وان فرت فلن اتردد في وضع يدي لاحتضنها
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
ضى القمر lolo
قمر المنتدى ومشرفة الفرقة الثانية
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العمر : 25
الموقع : المنصوره




مُساهمةموضوع: رد: موسوعه الادويه الشامله   الثلاثاء نوفمبر 09, 2010 1:01 am

Silymarin; _flagel; Unasynدول برده سيد ايفيكيت

موجودين ف اريا الباطنه

Silymarin

side effects that have been reported as a result of using Silymarin include upset stomach, nausea, mild headache, diarrhea, vomiting and joint pain. These side effects should be reported immediately to your doctor if any intensify or become persistent.

side effects: severe stomach pain, unusual sweating and muscle weakness. Users may also suffer from severe allergic reaction to Silymarin, including skin irritation, rash, hives, difficulty breathing and swelling of the lips, face or throat. Seek immediate medical attention if any of these side effects occu


Use with caution in children.

Silymarin in higher doses increases the flow of bile.



2_flagel

Common Side Effects:

Check with your doctor if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome:

· Diarrhea

· dizziness or lightheadedness

· headache

· loss of appetite

· nausea or vomiting

· stomach pain or cramps



laclsoe

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); diarrhea; high blood sugar (excessive thirst or urination, confusion, flushing, rapid breathing, or "fruity" breath odor).






Unasyn (ampicillin and sulbactam) side effects

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:

· fever, sore throat, and headache with a severe blistering, peeling, and red skin rash;

· diarrhea that is watery or bloody; or

· fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms.

Less serious side effects may include:

· nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, bloating, gas;

· vaginal itching or discharge;

· headache;

· itching;

· swollen, black, or "hairy" tongue;

· thrush (white patches or inside your mouth or throat); or

· pain, swelling, or other irritation where the needle is placed.



اللهم إنى أسألك الثبات فى الأمر

والعزيمة على الرشد

وأسألك موجبات رحمتك ، وعزائم مغفرتك
......
وأسألك شكر نعمتك ، وحسن عبادتك

وأسألك قلبا سليما ، ولسانا صادقا

وأسألك من خير ما تعلم ، وأعوذ بك من شر ما تعلم
واستغفرك لما تعلم

إنك أنت علام الغيوب


الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
ayosh
ملكة المنتدى ومشرفة الفرقة الثانية
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عدد المساهمات : 481
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الموقع : علي ايدك الشمال وانت داخل ع اليمين هتلاقي كرسي اقعد عليه استناني وانا هفكر اذا كنت اجيلك او لا


مُساهمةموضوع: رد: موسوعه الادويه الشامله   الثلاثاء نوفمبر 09, 2010 1:35 am

paracetamol
How does it work?

Anadin paracetamol tablets contain the active ingredient paracetamol, which is a simple painkilling medicine used to relieve mild to moderate pain and fever. (NB. Paracetamol is also available without a brand name, ie as the generic medicine.)

Despite its widespread use for over 100 years, we still don't fully understand how paracetamol works to relieve pain and reduce fever. However, it is now thought that it works by reducing the production of prostaglandins in the brain and spinal cord.

Prostaglandins are produced by the body in response to injury and certain diseases. One of their actions is to sensitise nerve endings, so that when the injury is stimulated it causes pain (presumably to prevent us from causing further harm to the area). As paracetamol reduces the production of these nerve sensitising prostaglandins it is thought it may increase our pain threshold, so that although the injury remains, we can feel it less.

It is thought paracetamol reduces fever by affecting an area of the brain that regulates our body temperature (the hypothalamic heat-regulating center).

Paracetamol is about as effective as aspirin at relieving mild to moderate pain and reducing fever, but unlike aspirin it has no anti-inflammatory effect.

Paracetamol can be used to relieve mild to moderate pain associated with conditions such as headaches, migraine, toothache, teething, colds and flu. It is also useful for reducing fever and discomfort associated with colds and flu and following vaccinations


What is paracetamol used for?





You can use paracetamol to:

  • Ease mild to moderate pain. For example, to ease headaches, sprains, toothache or the symptoms of a cold.
  • Control a fever (also known as pyrexia). For example, when you have the flu (influenza).

Use in children:
Babies and children can take paracetamol from the age of three months.
Occasionally, your GP or doctor may advise that your child can take paracetamol when they are under three months' old.
For example, one dose of paracetamol may be given to children 2-3 months of age if they have a high temperature following vaccinations. This dose may be repeated once after 4-6 hours . But any further doses should be on the advice of your GP or doctor.
Up to two doses may also be given to babies 2-3 months of age for other causes of fever or mild pain, as long as the baby weighs over 4kg and was not born before 37 weeks of pregnancy. However, if the high temperature does not get better or your baby is still in pain, speak with your GP.


side effect


If your doctor has directed you to use this medication, remember that he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

Tell your doctor immediately if any of these rare but very serious side effects occur: easy bruising/bleeding, new signs of infection (e.g., fever, persistent sore throat).

If you do not have liver problems, the maximum dose of acetaminophen for adults is 4 grams per day (4000 milligrams). The maximum dose of acetaminophen for children is based on age/weight (check product package for details). Taking more than the maximum daily amount may cause serious (possibly fatal) liver disease. Seek immediate medical attention if you have any of the following symptoms of liver damage: persistent nausea/vomiting, yellowing eyes/skin, dark urine, stomach/abdominal pain, extreme tiredness.

If you have liver problems, consult your doctor or pharmacist for a safe dosage of this medication.

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

In the US -

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

precautions


Before taking acetaminophen, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

If you have any of the following health problems, consult your doctor or pharmacist before using this product: liver disease, regular use/abuse of alcohol.

Acetaminophen may cause liver damage. Daily use of alcohol may increase your risk for liver damage, especially when combined with acetaminophen. Limit alcohol. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

Liquid products, chewable tablets, or dissolving/effervescent tablets may contain sugar or aspartame. Caution is advised if you have diabetes, phenylketonuria (PKU), or any other condition that requires you to limit/avoid these substances in your diet. Ask your doctor or pharmacist about using this product safely.

Tell your doctor if you are pregnant before using this medication.
Acetaminophen passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding




الدنيا وما فيها بالناس اللي فيها متسواش دقيقه في حضنك اعيشها
حجات حاسه بيها وحجات نفسي فيها مقولتش عليها ولقياك حاسسها
اصلك متعرفشي لما تكون جمبي انا ايه بقولهولك بيني وبين نفسي وايه بيحصلي حتي وانا بصلي من قلبي بدعيلك اكتر ما بدعي لنفسي
ولقيت معاك كل اللي بحلم بيه واللي بفكر فيه واللي زمان ياما من زمان كان قلبي مستنيه
............................
في قلبي لمسني وبروحك حاسسني يا اجمل ما شافت وهتشوف عنيا
مفيش حد زيك بيفهمني زيك مفيش حد غيرك حنين عليا
***********
***********

انت كالدمعه في عيني ..اخاف ان تفر مني فافقدها
وان فرت فلن اتردد في وضع يدي لاحتضنها
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
ayosh
ملكة المنتدى ومشرفة الفرقة الثانية
ملكة المنتدى ومشرفة الفرقة الثانية
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عدد المساهمات : 481
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العمر : 25
الموقع : علي ايدك الشمال وانت داخل ع اليمين هتلاقي كرسي اقعد عليه استناني وانا هفكر اذا كنت اجيلك او لا


مُساهمةموضوع: رد: موسوعه الادويه الشامله   الثلاثاء نوفمبر 09, 2010 1:51 am

flagyl


Metronidazole is used to treat a variety of infections. It belongs to a class of antibiotics known as nitroimidazoles. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria and protozoa.
This antibiotic only treats bacterial and protozoal infections. It will not work for viral infections (e.g., common cold, flu). Unnecessary use or overuse of any antibiotic can lead to its decreased effectiveness.
How to use Flagyl Oral


This medication may be taken with food or a full glass of water or milk to prevent stomach upset. Dosage is based on your medical condition, the type of infection being treated, and your response to therapy.

Antibiotics work best when the amount of medicine in your body is kept at a constant level. Therefore, take this drug at evenly spaced intervals.

Continue to take this medication until the full prescribed amount is finished, even if symptoms disappear after a few days. Stopping the medication too early may allow bacteria/protozoa to continue to grow, which may result in a relapse of the infection.
Inform your doctor if your condition persists or worsens.

side effects


Dizziness, headache, diarrhea, nausea, stomach pain, loss of appetite, constipation, changes in taste, and dry mouth may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, notify your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

This drug may cause urine to darken in color. This is harmless.

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

Tell your doctor immediately if any of these unlikely but serious side effects occur: unsteadiness, seizures, mental/mood changes, numbness/tingling of hands/feet, painful urination.

Tell your doctor immediately if any of these rare but very serious side effects occur: eye pain, sudden vision changes, sore throat, persistent fever, unusual bleeding/bruising, severe stomach pain, persistent nausea/vomiting.

Use of this medication for prolonged or repeated periods may result in oral thrush or a new vaginal yeast infection (oral or vaginal fungal infection). Contact your doctor if you notice white patches in your mouth, a change in vaginal discharge, or other new symptoms.

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is unlikely, but seek immediate medical attention if it occurs. Symptoms of a serious allergic reaction may include: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.
This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

Flagyl Oral Precautions


Before taking metronidazole, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to other nitroimidazoles such as tinidazole; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: liver problems, nervous system disorders (e.g., seizures), blood disorders, Crohn's disease.

Avoid alcoholic beverages while taking this medication and for at least 1 day (3 days if you are taking the oral capsules) after finishing this medicine because drinking alcohol may result in severe stomach upset/cramps, nausea, vomiting, headache and flushing.

This drug may make you dizzy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires alertness until you are sure you can perform such activities safely.

The elderly may be at greater risk for side effects while using this drug.

Tell your doctor if you are pregnant before using this drug. It should not be used during the first 3 months of pregnancy and used only with caution during the last 6 months, unless your infection has not improved on other antibiotics.
This medication passes into breast milk. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor before breast-feeding. If you are prescribed the single-dose treatment, your doctor may direct you to interrupt breast-feeding for a short time after the dose. Consult your doctor for more details.


Flagyl Oral Overdose


If overdose is suspected, contact your local poison control center or emergency room immediately. US residents can call the US national poison hotline at 1-800-222-1222. Canadian residents should call their local poison control center directly. Symptoms of overdose may include nausea, vomiting, severe dizziness, and seizures.




الدنيا وما فيها بالناس اللي فيها متسواش دقيقه في حضنك اعيشها
حجات حاسه بيها وحجات نفسي فيها مقولتش عليها ولقياك حاسسها
اصلك متعرفشي لما تكون جمبي انا ايه بقولهولك بيني وبين نفسي وايه بيحصلي حتي وانا بصلي من قلبي بدعيلك اكتر ما بدعي لنفسي
ولقيت معاك كل اللي بحلم بيه واللي بفكر فيه واللي زمان ياما من زمان كان قلبي مستنيه
............................
في قلبي لمسني وبروحك حاسسني يا اجمل ما شافت وهتشوف عنيا
مفيش حد زيك بيفهمني زيك مفيش حد غيرك حنين عليا
***********
***********

انت كالدمعه في عيني ..اخاف ان تفر مني فافقدها
وان فرت فلن اتردد في وضع يدي لاحتضنها
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
HERO_ELMASRY
الكبير أوى
الكبير أوى
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عدد المساهمات : 1377
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: موسوعه الادويه الشامله   الثلاثاء نوفمبر 09, 2010 3:46 am

جميل جدا
تسلمى يا يويو ويا لولو
ألف شكر
مجهود رائع






صمتى لا
يعني جهلي بما يدور حولى ,, ولكن ما يدور حولى لا يستحق الكلام !





الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
http://futurestars.ba7r.org
ayosh
ملكة المنتدى ومشرفة الفرقة الثانية
ملكة المنتدى ومشرفة الفرقة الثانية
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عدد المساهمات : 481
تاريخ التسجيل : 20/08/2010
العمر : 25
الموقع : علي ايدك الشمال وانت داخل ع اليمين هتلاقي كرسي اقعد عليه استناني وانا هفكر اذا كنت اجيلك او لا


مُساهمةموضوع: رد: موسوعه الادويه الشامله   الثلاثاء نوفمبر 09, 2010 11:16 pm

ميرسي ليك يا هيرو
بس انتوا كمان نزلوا يا جماعه هو مش موضوعي انا لوحدي
ههههههههههههههههههه انتوا هتدبسوني فيه ولا ايه؟؟
كل حد عنده دوا كويس ينزل عنه
اوك؟




الدنيا وما فيها بالناس اللي فيها متسواش دقيقه في حضنك اعيشها
حجات حاسه بيها وحجات نفسي فيها مقولتش عليها ولقياك حاسسها
اصلك متعرفشي لما تكون جمبي انا ايه بقولهولك بيني وبين نفسي وايه بيحصلي حتي وانا بصلي من قلبي بدعيلك اكتر ما بدعي لنفسي
ولقيت معاك كل اللي بحلم بيه واللي بفكر فيه واللي زمان ياما من زمان كان قلبي مستنيه
............................
في قلبي لمسني وبروحك حاسسني يا اجمل ما شافت وهتشوف عنيا
مفيش حد زيك بيفهمني زيك مفيش حد غيرك حنين عليا
***********
***********

انت كالدمعه في عيني ..اخاف ان تفر مني فافقدها
وان فرت فلن اتردد في وضع يدي لاحتضنها
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
ayosh
ملكة المنتدى ومشرفة الفرقة الثانية
ملكة المنتدى ومشرفة الفرقة الثانية
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عدد المساهمات : 481
تاريخ التسجيل : 20/08/2010
العمر : 25
الموقع : علي ايدك الشمال وانت داخل ع اليمين هتلاقي كرسي اقعد عليه استناني وانا هفكر اذا كنت اجيلك او لا


مُساهمةموضوع: رد: موسوعه الادويه الشامله   الجمعة نوفمبر 12, 2010 4:09 pm

insulin

How Does Insulin Work

Insulin activates the absorption of glucose from the blood by the cells of the muscle, liver and fat tissues. It also facilitates the storing of glucose as glycogen in the liver and muscle. Besides this, it prevents the use of fat for deriving energy.

Insulin is released in the body in two phases. The first phase involves the rapid release of a large amount of insulin in response to an increased level of glucose in the blood produced from the digestion of food. These high levels of insulin in the body induces the cells of the liver and muscles to absorb glucose from the blood. This results in a reduction in the blood glucose level. With the reduction of blood glucose level, insulin secretion also decreases. The second phase refers to the small amount of insulin continuously secreted by the beta cells, which is not dependent on the level of sugar. The body needs this small amount of insulin, as the liver keeps on releasing the stored sugar even when we are not eating. This ensures a constant supply of energy.

Insulin secreted in these ways enters the blood plasma and bind with beta globulin (a protein). Globulins are of two types, alpha and beta globulins, and are concerned with the circulation of lipids, vitamins and hormones throughout the body. When the blood plasma comes into contact with the liver and muscle cells, the insulin bounded to the beta globulins interact with the receptors (protein molecules) embedded in plasma membrane or cytoplasm of the cells. This in turn helps the passage of glucose into the cells.

In the absence of insulin, the absorption of glucose gets impaired due to which the body tends to use the stored fats to get energy. But, in the process the harmful byproducts, ketones are generated. On the other hand, since the body cannot absorb and utilize glucose in the absence of insulin, the blood glucose level increases.

Besides regulating the blood glucose level, insulin also affects many metabolic and other functions within the body. It is associated with the stimulation of some enzymes in the cells which induce many changes such as increase in glycogenesis or conversion of glucose into glycogen in the liver and muscles, and increase in the intake and utilization of glucose by the cells. In addition to all these, increased level of insulin stimulates the production of fat from glucose and prevents gluconeogenesis or generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources like lactate, glycerol, etc. It also plays an important role in the synthesis of DNA, RNA, cell replication and raises amino acid transportation to the cells.

Signs and Symptoms of Insulin Resistance

The first of the insulin resistance symptoms in men and women is fatigue. Since the body becomes insulin resistant, it wears out the person and the person is not able to work effectively. Fatigue can also be mental fatigue. People who are insulin resistant may suffer from poor memory, loss of creativity, poor grades, or even learning disabilities. These symptoms can more be glaring in case of students. The adults may not be able to notice these symptoms and often may tend to blame it on old age.

One of the insulin resistance symptoms is mild and brief periods of low blood sugar through the day. This situation may often arise, if the meals are not taken at the scheduled time. However, it is important to note, that extended period of low blood sugar, that is accompanied by physical and mental fatigue is not a normal sign. In such a case, you may want to talk to your health care professional regarding the same.

People who suffer from insulin resistance, may feel agitated, jittery and moody often. The next of the insulin resistance symptoms is often seen with a common man, but is more so with someone who suffers from insulin resistance. Immediately after eating a meal containing more than 20 to 30% carbohydrates, the person may feel extremely sleepy. You may also notice, that the person may doze off any time, sometimes also while sitting in their chair.

Obesity is one of the symptoms of insulin resistance. Too much of weight is a direct indicator of too much fat. In males the fat is accumulated around the abdomen and the large belly is often prominent. However, in case of women, the weight seen around the lower body especially in the thighs and buttocks. Hence, women who are insulin resistant often tend to have prominent buttocks.

Increased blood pressure can also be caused, due to insulin resistance. As a matter of fact, it has been observed, that most people who suffer from hypertension have too little insulin and are also insulin resistant. It is not difficult to prove the direct relation between the level of insulin and blood pressure, as when the insulin levels in the body increase, the blood pressure also increases.

Fatty liver is also one of the symptoms, that is associated with insulin resistance. There is accumulation of fat in the liver, due to manifestation of the disordered of lipids which occurs, when the person becomes insulin resistance.

Reproductive abnormalities in women are also observed as a result of insulin resistance. The woman may experience difficulty with ovulation and conception, irregular menses, etc. Some women may also suffer from Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS). As opposed to this there are no known reproductive abnormalities observed in men, who are insulin resistant.

If you notice one or more of the insulin resistance symptoms, over a period of time, you may want to visit your health care professional. At the same time, make sure you have a balanced diet and regular exercise schedule, so that you do not have any complications

How to Measure Insulin Resistance
The symptoms of insulin resistance include fatigue, intestinal swelling, bloating, drowsiness, weight gain and depression. In case you are experiencing such symptoms and also have a family history of diabetes, then you must get a insulin resistance test done. A test known as hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, is one way of ascertaining insulin resistance, but since it is a complicated method, it is generally used in medical research. Other blood tests that are used to measure insulin resistance are glucose tolerance test, fasting glucose test and fasting insulin test.

One of the most common test for ascertaining this condition is fasting blood glucose test. The normal blood sugar levels are 80 to 100 mg/dl, in case your blood sugar level is between 100-140 mg/dl, you might be insulin resistant. Another important test for diagnosing whether a person is suffering from insulin resistance or not, is glucose tolerance test.

This test requires overnight fasting. Blood will be drawn for a baseline blood glucose level. Then, the patient is given a sugar drink that contains about 75 grams of glucose. Then blood is drawn to check the blood glucose levels over the course of several hours. In case of people who are insulin resistant, the blood sugar levels stay abnormally high, as the insulin secreted by the pancreas is only partially absorbed by the tissues.

Wondering about insulin resistance test levels and how to measure them? Well, this will be measured by glucose tolerance test. You will have to drink a sweetened drink and reading will have to be taken after 2 hours. For the insulin resistance test, normal range should be below 140 mg/dl. In case, the test results indicate a reading of 140 to 199 mg/dl, it is indicative of pre-diabetes. Wondering whether you can perform the insulin resistance test at home? Though you might be able to check your blood glucose level at home, but that is not enough to measure insulin resistance.

The glucose tolerance test alone might not be sufficient for diagnosing insulin resistance, therefore, it must be analyzed along with insulin test results. Though the fasting insulin test is variable, but high insulin levels generally point towards an insulin resistance. Besides these tests, a lipid profile may also be ordered in order to measure LDL, HDL, triglycerides and total cholesterol. If the tests show increased levels of triglycerides and LDL and low HDL concentration, the probability of a person suffering from insulin resistance is high.

So, this was some information on insulin resistance test results. If you have been experiencing insulin resistance symptoms, you must consult a doctor soon. If detected at an early stage, you can make some changes in your diet and reduce your chances of developing diabetes

Before Injecting

The first step is locating the area where insulin is to be injected. There are many places in the body which can be injected. Certain parts can be more sensitive to insulin as compared to others. For instance, muscular areas are more sensitive to insulin than fatty areas. The tummy or hips may not be as sensitive as buttocks or thighs. One of the reasons why injections should be taken in the above mentioned areas is that, fats absorb insulin much better and faster than the other body parts. Fat parts also have less nerve endings, resulting in less pain.

It is recommended by doctors to avoid getting injected in areas which are frequently exercised. Once a part is injected, there should be a big time lapse before the same part is injected again. But at the same time, care should be taken to maintain the area of injection after a routine or one complete cycle. For example, if you decide to inject your arm once, the next time it would be a different part, like the abdomen. But the same hand can be injected again the next day and so on. Using the same parts of the body will ensure predictability of the effect and define the insulin level in the body. This would make tracking the results or improvements, a lot easier.

Lot of people are wary of injections and opt for alternative treatments like oral medication. But, people with type 1 diabetes have to compulsorily take an insulin injection. The technology for administering an insulin dose via needle, has significantly improved. Although, it is not pain free, the intensity of pain is definitely far less than what used to be in the olden days. Another concern is, whether it is possible or correct to take an injection with clothes on or through a cloth. The answer would be an overwhelming 'no'. There are two simple reasons for that - first, a cloth is not sterile. The needle may get contaminated and cause infection in the body part. Another point, is that a needle tip is lubricated to make the procedure less painful. After passing through a cloth, some of the lubricant may come off, eventually causing a bit more pain.

Steps for Injecting Insulin

These are the steps to be followed for taking an insulin injection. It is always recommended to take the advise of your doctor or a diabetes specialist before injecting yourself with insulin.


  • Wash your hands thoroughly with an antiseptic soap.
  • Remove the plastic covering off the insulin bottle. Ensure that the liquid is at room temperature to avoid a painful process. If it is cold, roll the bottle between your hands and warm it.
  • If you are using an insulin pen, shake it up and down vigorously along with the rolling procedure. This will evenly concentrate the liquid throughout the bottle.
  • The top part of the bottle needs to be cleaned with alcohol
  • Insert the needle into the bottle through the rubber cap and inject air into the bottle by pushing in the plunger.
  • Turn the bottle upside down and check whether the needle is in the insulin. Slowly, draw out the correct amount of insulin by pulling back the plunger.
  • If there are any air bubbles present in the syringe, they should be removed by tapping the syringe delicately after turning the bottle and the syringe upside down and raising it, again. Gently push the plunger to again let the bubbles go back in the syringe. Wipe the skin thoroughly, with a clean cotton swab dipped in alcohol. Pinch the spot to be injected and insert the needle just under the fatty area of the body, at a 90 degree angle. A 45 degree angle is more suitable for kids or adults with a lean built, so that the insulin is injected in the fatty layer and not the muscle.
  • Push the plunger to inject the insulin, release the pinch and leave the needle in for five seconds before removing it. Press at the site of injection gently but avoid rubbing vigorously. After these steps, you can release the skin and remove the needle
A careful and systematic approach is absolutely essential for conducting the above procedure. Two or three injecting sessions are sufficient to confidently administer the insulin, in a proper way. Have a safe, balanced and healthy lifestyle to keep diabetes at bay.

Causes for Side Effects of Insulin


  • Overdose of Insulin
  • Delayed or skipped meals
  • Uneven absorption of insulin
  • Deteriorated functioning of the kidney
  • Decreased secretions of thyroid or




الدنيا وما فيها بالناس اللي فيها متسواش دقيقه في حضنك اعيشها
حجات حاسه بيها وحجات نفسي فيها مقولتش عليها ولقياك حاسسها
اصلك متعرفشي لما تكون جمبي انا ايه بقولهولك بيني وبين نفسي وايه بيحصلي حتي وانا بصلي من قلبي بدعيلك اكتر ما بدعي لنفسي
ولقيت معاك كل اللي بحلم بيه واللي بفكر فيه واللي زمان ياما من زمان كان قلبي مستنيه
............................
في قلبي لمسني وبروحك حاسسني يا اجمل ما شافت وهتشوف عنيا
مفيش حد زيك بيفهمني زيك مفيش حد غيرك حنين عليا
***********
***********

انت كالدمعه في عيني ..اخاف ان تفر مني فافقدها
وان فرت فلن اتردد في وضع يدي لاحتضنها
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
ayosh
ملكة المنتدى ومشرفة الفرقة الثانية
ملكة المنتدى ومشرفة الفرقة الثانية
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عدد المساهمات : 481
تاريخ التسجيل : 20/08/2010
العمر : 25
الموقع : علي ايدك الشمال وانت داخل ع اليمين هتلاقي كرسي اقعد عليه استناني وانا هفكر اذا كنت اجيلك او لا


مُساهمةموضوع: رد: موسوعه الادويه الشامله   الجمعة نوفمبر 12, 2010 4:16 pm

Side Effects of Insulin

There are six types of insulin classified based on the duration of action on the human body. The types of insulin available are rapid-acting, short-acting, intermediate-acting, long-acting, very long-acting and premix. Short-acting insulin is given in the abdomen, long-acting insulin is given in the thighs and insulin premix is given in the abdomen or thighs. Side effects of insulin are a rare sight. Dosage of insulin varies according to the patient. Insulin is given to the patient using syringes, pens and pumps. Some of the side-effects are as follows:

Hypoglycemia: The glucose levels in the human brain drops down. The symptoms of hypoglycemia are sweating, dizziness, excessive hunger, increase in pulse rate, and blurred vision. Eating small amounts of food that is rich in sugar gives temporary relief from hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia directly affects the brain tissues. Severe hypoglycemia may result in coma. The sugar levels should be checked immediately after hypoglycemia. Checking sugar levels helps in further treatment of diabetes.

Weight gain: In diabetes, calories are not well-utilized. Intake of insulin increases the use of calories consumed by human body, this leads to weight gain. Weight gain in diabetes can be a serious issue. Diabetic patients must be very careful about the changes in their weight.

Loss of fatty tissues: Taking frequent injections of insulin can damage the fatty tissues in the injected area. Improper hygiene during medication may cause infections.

Allergic reactions: The area where the insulin is injected turns red and becomes itchy. Edema (swelling) is observed on a part or the whole body in some cases, due to excessive water retention. These side-effects are usually seen in first few weeks of therapy. In case allergic reactions last for more than two weeks, you should consult your physician. Syringes and pens used to take insulin should never be shared with others to avoid infections.

Upper respiratory tract problems: Coughing, respiratory tract infections and difficulty in breathing is seen in patients taking insulin via a pump. Very few patients are recommended to take insulin using an insulin pump.

Interactions with other drugs: The effect of insulin is nullified by many drugs consumed. These drugs may cause hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. Oral diabetic medications, alcoholic beverages, sulfonamide antibiotics, aspirin, Fibrate cholesterol medications, growth hormones are some of the drugs with which insulin reacts. Patients should consult the doctor if they are on some other drugs before taking insulin.

Pregnant women should take insulin only under medical observation. Breast-feeding mothers must adjust their insulin dosage with their diabetic diet. Insulin is prescribed by the physician taking into consideration many other aspects. Some of these aspects are your age, lifestyle, individual body response to insulin and blood sugar levels. Insulin must be taken under proper medical observation.




الدنيا وما فيها بالناس اللي فيها متسواش دقيقه في حضنك اعيشها
حجات حاسه بيها وحجات نفسي فيها مقولتش عليها ولقياك حاسسها
اصلك متعرفشي لما تكون جمبي انا ايه بقولهولك بيني وبين نفسي وايه بيحصلي حتي وانا بصلي من قلبي بدعيلك اكتر ما بدعي لنفسي
ولقيت معاك كل اللي بحلم بيه واللي بفكر فيه واللي زمان ياما من زمان كان قلبي مستنيه
............................
في قلبي لمسني وبروحك حاسسني يا اجمل ما شافت وهتشوف عنيا
مفيش حد زيك بيفهمني زيك مفيش حد غيرك حنين عليا
***********
***********

انت كالدمعه في عيني ..اخاف ان تفر مني فافقدها
وان فرت فلن اتردد في وضع يدي لاحتضنها
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
ayosh
ملكة المنتدى ومشرفة الفرقة الثانية
ملكة المنتدى ومشرفة الفرقة الثانية
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عدد المساهمات : 481
تاريخ التسجيل : 20/08/2010
العمر : 25
الموقع : علي ايدك الشمال وانت داخل ع اليمين هتلاقي كرسي اقعد عليه استناني وانا هفكر اذا كنت اجيلك او لا


مُساهمةموضوع: رد: موسوعه الادويه الشامله   الجمعة نوفمبر 12, 2010 4:45 pm

heparin
How does it work?

Heparin sodium injection is a type of medicine called an anticoagulant. It is used to stop blood clots forming within the blood vessels. Heparin sodium is sometimes referred to as standard or unfractionated heparin.
Blood clots normally only form to stop bleeding that has occurred as a result of injury to the tissues. The clotting process is complicated and begins when blood cells called platelets clump together and produce chemicals that activate the clotting process. The final part of this process involves a substance called thrombin being activated to produce a protein called fibrin. Fibrin binds the platelets together, forming a blood clot. This is the body’s natural way of repairing itself.
Heparin works by inactivating thrombin in the clotting process. This stops the formation of fibrin and so stops blood clots forming. Heparin is used to treat blood clots that have formed abnormally inside the blood vessels. It can also be used to prevent these types of dangerous blood clots.
A blood clot that forms abnormally within the blood vessels is known as a thrombus. It can be dangerous because the clot may detach and travel in the bloodstream (where it becomes known as an embolus) and may eventually get lodged in a blood vessel, thereby blocking the blood supply to a vital organ such as the heart, brain or lungs. This is known as a thromboembolism.
Some people have an increased tendency for blood clots to form within the blood vessels. This is usually due to a disturbance in the blood flow within the blood vessels. For example, in coronary artery disease, fatty deposits (atherosclerosis) on the walls of the coronary arteries can disrupt the blood flow, giving a tendency for platelets to clump together and start off the clotting process. Unstable coronary artery disease means that a furred up bit of the artery has ruptured and a clot has formed on it, reducing the flow of blood to the heart. This causes chest pain (angina) and can result in a heart attack.
Slow blood flow in the leg and pelvic veins can also result in clots forming in these blood vessels (deep vein thrombosis). These clots can break off and travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism). Being immobile for long periods of time, for example due to a severe medical condition or following surgery, can increase the risk of these types of blood clot, as can pregnancy, obesity and certain blood disorders.
Heparin is given by injection or drip into a vein (intravenously) or by injection under the skin (subcutaneously) to treat and prevent these types of blood clots. The dose and length of treatment used will depend on the nature of the clot being treated or prevented.

What is it used for?



  • Treating and preventing blood clots in the veins of the leg (deep vein thrombosis).
  • Treating and preventing blood clots travelling to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
  • Treating blood clots in the coronary arteries in unstable angina.
  • Treating blood clots that are blocking a peripheral artery, eg in the leg (peripheral arterial occlusion).
  • Preventing further blood clots in the heart immediately following a heart attack.
  • Preventing blood from clotting when it is filtered through an 'artificial kidney' (haemodialysis) machine as part of the management of kidney failure.
  • Preventing blood from clotting when it is filtered through a machine during heart-lung bypass surgery.

Warning!



  • While you are receiving treatment for a blood clot with this medicine you will need to have regular blood tests, usually on a daily basis, to check the length of time it takes your blood to clot. This is so that your dose can be adjusted to ensure that the lowest effective dose is used at all times, thus reducing the risk of bleeding.
  • If you receive this medicine for longer than five days you will need to have regular blood tests to check the level of blood cells called platelets in your blood. This is because heparin can sometimes cause the number of platelets in your blood to fall - a condition known as thrombocytopenia. If this happens, the heparin will need to be stopped and alternative treatment used.
  • The amount of potassium in your blood will also be checked in the blood tests, particularly if you have been receiving heparin for longer than seven days. This is because heparin can sometimes cause the amount of potassium in your blood to rise too high. This is called hyperkalaemia. Some people may be at a greater risk of this, for example those with diabetes or kidney problems, or people taking other medicines that can cause potassium to be retained in the body.

Use with caution in



  • Elderly people
  • Decreased liver function
  • Decreased kidney function
  • High level of potassium in the blood (hyperkalaemia)
  • Increase in the acidity of the blood (metabolic acidosis)
  • Hypersensitivity to low molecular weight heparins, eg dalteparin.

Not to be used in



  • People with low numbers of blood cells called platelets in their blood (thrombocytopenia)
  • People who have previously developed a reduced platelet count due to treatment with heparin (heparin-associated thrombocytopenia)
  • People who are actively bleeding
  • People who are more prone to bleeding than normal, eg due to the blood clotting disorder haemophilia
  • Bacterial infection of the heart valves and the lining surrounding the heart (bacterial endocarditis)
  • People who have recently had bleeding in the brain (cerebral haemorrhage), eg a haemorrhagic stroke
  • People who have had recent injury or surgery to the brain, spinal cord, or eyes
  • People who are due to have spinal or epidural anaesthesia or lumbar puncture
  • Severe liver disease.
This medicine should not be used if you are allergic to one or any of its ingredients. Please inform your doctor or pharmacist if you have previously experienced such an allergy.

If you feel you have experienced an allergic reaction, stop using this medicine and inform your doctor or pharmacist immediately.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Certain medicines should not be used during pregnancy or breastfeeding. However, other medicines may be safely used in pregnancy or breastfeeding providing the benefits to the mother outweigh the risks to the unborn baby. Always inform your doctor if you are pregnant or planning a pregnancy, before using any medicine.


  • Heparin is often used to prevent blood clots in pregnant women who are at high risk of clots, for example due to a blood clotting disorder or because they have an artificial heart valve. Heparin does not cross the placenta and so does not enter the baby's bloodstream. It does not cause birth defects. However, some multidose vials of heparin contain benzyl alcohol and this should be avoided during pregnancy. Long-term use of heparin during pregnancy can cause weakening of the mother's bones (osteoporosis). There may also be an increased risk of bleeding during the pregnancy, or after delivery. You should discuss this with your doctor. As with all medicines, heparin should only be use during pregnancy if the benefits outweigh any possible risks.
  • Heparin does not pass into breast milk. It can be used safely in mothers who are breastfeeding.

Side effects

Medicines and their possible side effects can affect individual people in different ways. The following are some of the side effects that are known to be associated with this medicine. Because a side effect is stated here, it does not mean that all people using this medicine will experience that or any side effect.


  • Bleeding
  • High blood potassium level (hyperkalaemia)
  • Decrease in the number of platelets in the blood (thrombocytopenia)
  • Breakdown of skin cells
  • Thinning of the bones (osteoporosis) with long term use
  • Hair loss (alopecia) may be experienced after prolonged use
  • Blood clots in the spinal cord (spinal haematoma) in people having spinal or epidural anaesthesia or lumbar puncture while receiving heparin.
The side effects listed above may not include all of the side effects reported by the drug's manufacturer.

For more information about any other possible risks associated with this medicine, please read the information provided with the medicine or consult your doctor or pharmacist.

How can this medicine affect other medicines?

It is important to tell your doctor or pharmacist what medicines you are already taking, including those bought without a prescription and herbal medicines, before you start treatment with this medicine. Similarly, check with your doctor or pharmacist before taking any new medicines while having treatment with this one, to ensure that the combination is safe.
There may be an increased anti-blood-clotting effect, which can result in an increased risk of bleeding or increased time taken to stop bleeding, if any of the following medicines are used in combination with heparin:


  • antiplatelet ('blood-thinning') medicines, such as aspirin, dipyridamole, clopidogrel
  • clot-busting medicines (fibrinolytics) such as streptokinase, alteplase
  • dextrans
  • non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen
  • oral anticoagulants, such as warfarin, nicoumalone, phenindione.
If you are given any of these your doctor or pharmacist will adjust the doses of your medicines so that the appropriate effect on your blood clotting time is achieved.
There may an increased risk of a rise in the amount of potassium in your blood if heparin is used in combination with the following medicines, which can also raise blood potassium:


  • ACE inhibitors, eg enalapril, captopril
  • angiotensin II receptor antagonists, eg losartan, valsartan
  • potassium-sparing diuretics, eg triamterene, spironolactone, amiloride
  • potassium supplements
  • potassium salts.
The amount of potassium in your blood should be regularly monitored if you are taking any of these while being treated with heparin.
The anticoagulant effect of heparin may be reduced by drips (intravenous infusions) of nitrate medicines such as glyceryl trinitrate.




الدنيا وما فيها بالناس اللي فيها متسواش دقيقه في حضنك اعيشها
حجات حاسه بيها وحجات نفسي فيها مقولتش عليها ولقياك حاسسها
اصلك متعرفشي لما تكون جمبي انا ايه بقولهولك بيني وبين نفسي وايه بيحصلي حتي وانا بصلي من قلبي بدعيلك اكتر ما بدعي لنفسي
ولقيت معاك كل اللي بحلم بيه واللي بفكر فيه واللي زمان ياما من زمان كان قلبي مستنيه
............................
في قلبي لمسني وبروحك حاسسني يا اجمل ما شافت وهتشوف عنيا
مفيش حد زيك بيفهمني زيك مفيش حد غيرك حنين عليا
***********
***********

انت كالدمعه في عيني ..اخاف ان تفر مني فافقدها
وان فرت فلن اتردد في وضع يدي لاحتضنها


عدل سابقا من قبل ayosh في الجمعة نوفمبر 12, 2010 5:37 pm عدل 1 مرات
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
ayosh
ملكة المنتدى ومشرفة الفرقة الثانية
ملكة المنتدى ومشرفة الفرقة الثانية
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عدد المساهمات : 481
تاريخ التسجيل : 20/08/2010
العمر : 25
الموقع : علي ايدك الشمال وانت داخل ع اليمين هتلاقي كرسي اقعد عليه استناني وانا هفكر اذا كنت اجيلك او لا


مُساهمةموضوع: رد: موسوعه الادويه الشامله   الجمعة نوفمبر 12, 2010 5:32 pm

burinex


How does it work?

Burinex tablets contain the active ingredient bumetanide, which is a type of medicine called a loop diuretic. (NB. bumetanide is also available without a brand name, ie as the generic medicine.)
Diuretics are sometimes referred to as 'water tablets'. They remove excess fluid from the body by increasing the production of urine.
Loop diuretics work by causing the kidneys to increase the amount of salts such as potassium and sodium that are filtered out of the blood and into the urine. When these salts are filtered out of the blood by the kidneys, water is also drawn alongside. As diuretics increase the removal of salts from the blood, they also cause more water to be drawn out of the blood and into the urine.
Bumetanide is used to treat conditions where excess fluid has been retained in the body (oedema). For example, in heart failure, the pumping mechanism of the heart is less effective. This can cause fluid to build up in the ankles and the lungs (pulmonary oedema), which makes it difficult to breathe. Bumetanide helps the body to remove this excess fluid. Removing fluid from the blood vessels also decreases the pressure within the blood vessels. This makes it easier for a weak heart to pump blood around the body. Bumetanide is therefore used to relieve the symptoms of heart failure.
Bumetanide is also used to remove excess fluid that can accumulate in people with cirrhosis of the liver. This fluid may accumulate in the abdomen or in the legs (peripheral oedema).
Problems with blood circulation in the legs can also cause fluid retention and swelling of the ankles or lower legs, and this can also be treated with bumetanide.
At higher doses the amount of water drawn from the blood into the urine is much greater, therefore bumetanide is also used when there is reduced production of urine in people with kidney failure.
As bumetanide decreases the pressure within the blood vessels, it is also sometimes used to treat high blood pressure, usually in people resistant to other blood pressure lowering medicines.

What is it used for?



Warning!



  • As diuretics cause your kidneys to produce more urine, you may prefer to take this medicine in the morning rather than before going to bed, as this will reduce the likelihood of you needing to get up in the night to visit the toilet. Seek further advice from your doctor or pharmacist.
  • While taking this medicine you will need to have regular blood tests to monitor your kidney function and the levels of salts such as potassium and sodium in your blood.
  • If you experience any of the following symptoms while taking this medicine you should inform your doctor promptly, so that the amount of fluids and salts in your body can be checked: thirst, lethargy, confusion, weakness, drowsiness, muscle cramps, scanty production of urine, abnormal heart rhythm, seizures, nausea and vomiting.

Use with caution in



  • Elderly people.
  • Decreased kidney function.
  • Decreased liver function.
  • People who have difficulty passing urine (urinary retention).
  • Enlarged prostate gland (prostatic hypertrophy).
  • Low blood pressure (hypotension).
  • Kidney failure in people with liver failure (hepatorenal syndrome).
  • Low amounts of protein in the blood (hypoproteinaemia), eg due to kidney disorders.
  • Obstruction of the urinary tract (urethra).

Not to be used in



  • Children under 12 years of age.
  • Low volume of circulating blood (hypovolaemia).
  • Dehydration.
  • People who are not producing any urine.
  • Kidney failure causing no urine to be produced (anuria).
  • Kidney failure caused by poisoning with liver or kidney damaging agents.
  • People who have kidney failure and are unconscious due to end stage liver disease.
  • High blood uric acid level (hyperuricaemia).
  • Very low blood potassium levels (hypokalaemia).
  • Very low blood sodium levels (hyponatraemia).
  • Allergy to medicines from the sulphonamide group, eg the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole.
  • Breastfeeding.
  • Bumetanide tablets contain lactose and may be unsuitable for people with lactose intolerance, glucose/galactose malabsorption or a genetic disorder leading to accumulation of galactose in the blood (galactosaemia).
This medicine should not be used if you are allergic to any of its ingredients. Please inform your doctor or pharmacist if you have previously experienced such an allergy.
If you feel you have experienced an allergic reaction, stop using this medicine and inform your doctor or pharmacist immediately.

Pregnancy and breastfeeding

Certain medicines should not be used during pregnancy or breastfeeding. However, other medicines may be safely used in pregnancy or breastfeeding providing the benefits to the mother outweigh the risks to the unborn baby. Always inform your doctor if you are pregnant or planning a pregnancy, before using any medicine.


  • This medicine should be used with caution during pregnancy, and only if the expected benefit to the mother is greater than any possible risk to the foetus. It should be avoided in the first trimester of pregnancy. Seek medical advice from your doctor.
  • This medicine passes into breast milk and may also reduce the production of breast milk. Women who need treatment with this medicine should not breastfeed. Seek further medical advice from your doctor.

Side effects

Medicines and their possible side effects can affect individual people in different ways. The following are some of the side effects that are known to be associated with this medicine. Because a side effect is stated here, it does not mean that all people using this medicine will experience that or any side effect.


  • Disturbances of the gut such as diarrhoea, constipation, nausea, vomiting or abdominal pain.
  • Headache.
  • Dizziness.
  • Low blood pressure (hypotension).
  • Fatigue.
  • Skin reactions such as rash, itching photosensitivity.
  • Muscle cramps.
  • Decreased levels of sodium, potassium, magnesium or calcium in the blood.
  • Increased blood uric acid level (hyperuricaemia) which can cause kidney problems and gout.
  • Hearing disorders.
  • Decrease in the normal numbers of blood cells in the blood.
The side effects listed above may not include all of the side effects reported by the medicine's manufacturer.
For more information about any other possible risks associated with this medicine, please read the information provided with the medicine or consult your doctor or pharmacist.

How can this medicine affect other medicines?

It is important to tell your doctor or pharmacist what medicines you are already taking, including those bought without a prescription and herbal medicines, before you start treatment with this medicine. Similarly, check with your doctor or pharmacist before taking any new medicines while having treatment with this one, to ensure that the combination is safe.
Bumetanide decreases blood pressure. If it is used in combination with other medicines that lower blood pressure, either as a side effect, or to treat high blood pressure (antihypertensives), the combination might lower your blood pressure too much and make you feel dizzy or faint. Your doctor may need to adjust your doses. Other medicines that decrease blood pressure include the following:


  • ACE inhibitors such as enalapril
  • alpha-blockers such as prazosin
  • beta-blockers such as propranolol
  • calcium-channel blockers such as verapamil, nifedipine
  • clonidine
  • nitrates, eg glyceryl trinitrate
  • certain antidepressants
  • certain antipsychotics
  • alprostadil
  • baclofen
  • benzodiazepines, such as diazepam.
If you are due to start treatment with an ACE inhibitor, angiotensin-II receptor antagonist, or alpha-blocker, your doctor may stop your treatment with bumetanide or reduce your dose for a few days beforehand, in order to avoid your blood pressure falling too low with the first dose of the new medicine.
There may be an increased risk of side effects on the kidneys if this medicine is used in combination with the following medicines:


  • ACE inhibitors, eg captopril
  • certain antibiotics, eg aminoglycosides such as gentamicin
  • platinum componds, eg cisplatin
  • other diuretics
  • non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), eg indometacin.
There may be an increased risk of side effects on the ears if this medicine is used in combination with the following medicines:


  • platinum componds, eg cisplatin
  • vancomycin
  • aminoglycoside antibiotics such as gentamicin.
The following medicines may decrease the blood pressure lowering and diuretic effects of bumetanide:


  • corticosteroids such as hydrocortisone
  • NSAIDs such as indometacin
  • phenytoin.
Bumetanide may increase the blood level of the medicine lithium. People taking lithium together with furosemide should have the level of lithium in their blood closely monitored.
Bumetanide can increase blood glucose levels and people with diabetes may therefore need increases in their dose of insulin or antidiabetic tablets. Blood sugar levels should be monitored.
Bumetanide can decrease the amount of potassium in the blood. If it is used in combination with any of the following medicines, which can also lower potassium in the blood, the risk of a low blood potassium level (hypokalaemia) is increased:


  • amphotericin
  • corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone and prednisolone
  • beta 2 agonists, eg salbutamol, terbutaline
  • other diuretics, such as bendroflumethiazide
  • reboxetine
  • theophylline.
If the level of potassium in your blood falls during treatment, this can increase the risk of side effects on the heart caused by the following medicines:


  • atomoxetine
  • digoxin
  • medicines for abnormal heart rhythms, eg amiodarone, flecainide, sotalol, disopyramide
  • certain antipsychotic medicines, eg amisulpride, sertindole, pimozide.

Other medicines containing the same active ingredients

Bumetanide tablets are also available without a brand name, ie as the generic medicine.




الدنيا وما فيها بالناس اللي فيها متسواش دقيقه في حضنك اعيشها
حجات حاسه بيها وحجات نفسي فيها مقولتش عليها ولقياك حاسسها
اصلك متعرفشي لما تكون جمبي انا ايه بقولهولك بيني وبين نفسي وايه بيحصلي حتي وانا بصلي من قلبي بدعيلك اكتر ما بدعي لنفسي
ولقيت معاك كل اللي بحلم بيه واللي بفكر فيه واللي زمان ياما من زمان كان قلبي مستنيه
............................
في قلبي لمسني وبروحك حاسسني يا اجمل ما شافت وهتشوف عنيا
مفيش حد زيك بيفهمني زيك مفيش حد غيرك حنين عليا
***********
***********

انت كالدمعه في عيني ..اخاف ان تفر مني فافقدها
وان فرت فلن اتردد في وضع يدي لاحتضنها
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
ayosh
ملكة المنتدى ومشرفة الفرقة الثانية
ملكة المنتدى ومشرفة الفرقة الثانية
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عدد المساهمات : 481
تاريخ التسجيل : 20/08/2010
العمر : 25
الموقع : علي ايدك الشمال وانت داخل ع اليمين هتلاقي كرسي اقعد عليه استناني وانا هفكر اذا كنت اجيلك او لا


مُساهمةموضوع: رد: موسوعه الادويه الشامله   الجمعة نوفمبر 12, 2010 5:41 pm

aldactone


How does it work?


Aldactone tablets contain the active ingredient spironolactone, which is a type of medicine called a potassium-sparing diuretic. Diuretics are sometimes referred to as ‘water tablets’. (NB. Spironolactone is also available without a brand name, ie as the generic medicine.)
Spironolactone works by blocking the actions of a hormone in the body called aldosterone. This hormone is produced by glands found above the kidneys called the adrenal glands. Aldosterone acts in the kidneys, where it is involved in controlling the balance of salt and water in the body.
Blocking the action of aldosterone causes the kidneys to increase the amount of salts such as sodium that they filter out of the blood and into the urine. When these salts are filtered out of the blood by the kidneys, water is also drawn alongside. Spironolactone therefore increases the amount of water that is drawn out of the blood and into the urine. This helps excess fluid to be removed from the body.
There are many conditions that can lead to an accumulation of fluid in the body (oedema). These include heart failure (where the fluid may build up in the lungs, causing breathlessness, or the ankles, causing swollen ankles), liver cirrhosis (where fluid may build up in the abdominal cavity, causing a swollen abdomen) and certain types of kidney disease. Spironolactone is used to remove excess fluid associated with these conditions and thus relieve the related symptoms.
Most other diuretics cause the amount of potassium in the blood to drop. Spironolactone doesn't have this effect, and so is called a 'potassium-sparing' diuretic. It is usually used in combination with other diuretics to increase the removal of fluid from the body, while preventing potassium levels from falling too low.
Spironolactone is also used in the treatment of a condition called Conn's syndrome, in which there is excess production of aldosterone by the adrenal glands. By opposing the action of aldosterone, spironolactone relieves the symptoms of this syndrome, which include fluid retention, high blood pressure and low levels of potassium in the blood.
What is it used for?



Warning!



  • As diuretics cause your kidneys to produce more urine, you may prefer to take this medicine in the morning rather than before going to bed, as this will reduce the likelihood of you needing to get up in the night to visit the toilet. Seek further advice from your doctor or pharmacist.
  • This medicine may make some people feel sleepy or dizzy. You should take care when driving or operating machinary until you know how this medicine affects you and you are sure you can perform such activities safely.
  • It is recommended that people taking this medicine have their fluid and salt (electrolyte) balance monitored regularly.
  • If you experience any of the following symptoms while taking this medicine you should inform your doctor promptly, so that the amount of fluids and salts in your body can be checked: thirst, lethargy, confusion, weakness, drowsiness, muscle cramps, scanty production of urine, abnormal heart rhythm, seizures, nausea or vomiting.

Use with caution in



  • Elderly people.
  • Decreased kidney function.
  • Decreased liver function.
  • Hereditary blood disorders called porphyrias.

Not to be used in



This medicine should not be used if you are allergic to one or any of its ingredients. Please inform your doctor or pharmacist if you have previously experienced such an allergy.

If you feel you have experienced an allergic reaction, stop using this medicine and inform your doctor or pharmacist immediately.
Pregnancy and breastfeeding


Certain medicines should not be used during pregnancy or breastfeeding. However, other medicines may be safely used in pregnancy or breastfeeding providing the benefits to the mother outweigh the risks to the unborn baby. Always inform your doctor if you are pregnant or planning a pregnancy, before using any medicine.

  • This medicine should be used with caution during pregnancy, and only if the expected benefit to the mother is greater than any possible risk to the foetus. Seek medical advice from your doctor.
  • This medicine passes into breast milk in small amounts. The manufacturer recommends that mothers who need treatment with this medicine should not breastfeed, and bottlefeed their infants instead. Seek further medical advice from your doctor.

Label warnings



  • Take this medication with or after food.

Side effects


Medicines and their possible side effects can affect individual people in different ways. The following are some of the side effects that are known to be associated with this medicine. Just because a side effect is stated here does not mean that all people using this medicine will experience that or any side effect.

  • Disturbances of the gut such as diarrhoea, constipation, nausea, vomiting or abdominal pain.
  • Abnormal enlargement of breasts in men (gynaecomastia).
  • Impotence.
  • Irregular menstrual cycle
  • Breast pain.
  • Lethargy.
  • Confusion.
  • Headache.
  • Skin rashes.
  • Increased level of potassium in the blood (hyperkalaemia).
  • Decreased level of sodium in the blood (hyponatraemia).
  • Leg cramps.
  • Dizziness.
  • Changes in sex drive.
  • Hair loss (alopecia).
  • Excessive hair growth.
  • Abnormal liver function.
  • Decreased numbers of white blood cells in the blood.

The side effects listed above may not include all of the side effects reported by the drug's manufacturer.

For more information about any other possible risks associated with this medicine, please read the information provided with the medicine or consult your doctor or pharmacist.
How can this medicine affect other medicines?


It is important to tell your doctor or pharmacist what medicines you are already taking, including those bought without a prescription and herbal medicines, before you start treatment with this medicine. Similarly, check with your doctor or pharmacist before taking any new medicines while taking this one, to ensure that the combination is safe.
If any of the following are taken in combination with this medicine it could cause the amount of potassium in the blood to rise too high. These should therefore be avoided where possible. If your doctor considers them necessary the level of potassium in your blood should be monitored:

  • ACE inhibitors, eg captopril
  • angiotensin-II receptor antagonists, eg losartan
  • ciclosporin
  • other aldosterone antagonists, eg eplerenone
  • other potassium-sparing diuretics, eg amiloride, triamterene
  • potassium salts, eg potassium citrate for cystitis
  • potassium supplements
  • potassium-containing salt substitutes, eg Lo-salt
  • tacrolimus.

Spironolactone may increase the blood level of the following medicines:

  • digoxin
  • lithium.

The diuretic effect of spironolactone may be opposed by aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as indometacin.
Spironolactone may enhance the blood pressure lowering effect of medicines used to treat high blood pressure (antihypertensives). If you are taking medicines for high blood pressure in combination with spironolactone and you frequently feel dizzy, you should let your doctor know as your medicine doses may need adjusting.
Other medicines containing the same active ingredient


Spironolactone tablets and suspension are available without a brand name, ie as the generic medicine.




الدنيا وما فيها بالناس اللي فيها متسواش دقيقه في حضنك اعيشها
حجات حاسه بيها وحجات نفسي فيها مقولتش عليها ولقياك حاسسها
اصلك متعرفشي لما تكون جمبي انا ايه بقولهولك بيني وبين نفسي وايه بيحصلي حتي وانا بصلي من قلبي بدعيلك اكتر ما بدعي لنفسي
ولقيت معاك كل اللي بحلم بيه واللي بفكر فيه واللي زمان ياما من زمان كان قلبي مستنيه
............................
في قلبي لمسني وبروحك حاسسني يا اجمل ما شافت وهتشوف عنيا
مفيش حد زيك بيفهمني زيك مفيش حد غيرك حنين عليا
***********
***********

انت كالدمعه في عيني ..اخاف ان تفر مني فافقدها
وان فرت فلن اتردد في وضع يدي لاحتضنها
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
ayosh
ملكة المنتدى ومشرفة الفرقة الثانية
ملكة المنتدى ومشرفة الفرقة الثانية
avatar

عدد المساهمات : 481
تاريخ التسجيل : 20/08/2010
العمر : 25
الموقع : علي ايدك الشمال وانت داخل ع اليمين هتلاقي كرسي اقعد عليه استناني وانا هفكر اذا كنت اجيلك او لا


مُساهمةموضوع: رد: موسوعه الادويه الشامله   الجمعة نوفمبر 12, 2010 6:03 pm

unasyn

How to use Unasyn IV

This medication is given by injection by a health care professional. Follow all instructions for preparation and use of this product. Before using this product, check it visually for particles or discoloration. If either is present, do not use the liquid. If you have questions about the use of this medication, consult the pharmacist.
This medication is usually given every 6 hours or as directed by your doctor.
The dosage is based on your medical condition and response to therapy. For children, the dosage is also based on weight.
Antibiotics work best when the amount of medicine in your body is kept at a constant level. Therefore, use this drug at evenly spaced intervals.
Continue to use this medication until the full prescribed amount is finished, even if symptoms disappear after a few days. Stopping the medication too early may result in a return of the infection.
Inform your doctor if your condition persists or worsens
Unasyn IV Side Effects

Nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea may occur. If this medication is injected into a muscle, pain at the injection site may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, notify your doctor or pharmacist promptly.
Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.
Tell your doctor immediately if any of these unlikely but serious side effects occur: pain/swelling at injection site (if this drug is injected into a vein), chest pain, difficult/painful urination.
Tell your doctor immediately if any of these rare but very serious side effects occur: easy bruising/bleeding, dark urine, yellowing eyes/skin, severe abdominal/stomach pain, new signs of infection (e.g., fever, persistent sore throat), change in the amount of urine.
This medication may rarely cause a severe intestinal condition (Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea) due to a type of resistant bacteria. This condition may occur during treatment or weeks to months after treatment has stopped. Do not use anti-diarrhea products or narcotic pain medications if you have any of the following symptoms because these products may make them worse. Tell your doctor immediately if you develop persistent diarrhea, abdominal or stomach pain/cramping, or blood/mucus in your stool.
Use of this medication for prolonged or repeated periods may result in oral thrush or a new vaginal yeast infection. Contact your doctor if you notice white patches in your mouth, a change in vaginal discharge, or other new symptoms.
A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.
Ampicillin can commonly cause a mild rash that is usually not serious. However, you may not be able to tell it apart from a rare rash that could be a sign of a severe allergic reaction. Therefore, seek immediate medical attention if you develop any rash.
This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.
Unasyn IV Precautions


Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to penicillin or cephalosporin antibiotics; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.
Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: viral infections (e.g., infectious mononucleosis), kidney disease.
This medication contains sodium. Consult your doctor or pharmacist if you are on a salt-restricted diet or if you have a condition that could be worsened by an increase in salt intake (e.g., congestive heart failure).
Kidney function declines as you grow older. This medication is removed by the kidneys. Therefore, elderly people may be at greater risk for side effects while using this drug.
During pregnancy, this medication should be used only when clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.
This medication passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding




الدنيا وما فيها بالناس اللي فيها متسواش دقيقه في حضنك اعيشها
حجات حاسه بيها وحجات نفسي فيها مقولتش عليها ولقياك حاسسها
اصلك متعرفشي لما تكون جمبي انا ايه بقولهولك بيني وبين نفسي وايه بيحصلي حتي وانا بصلي من قلبي بدعيلك اكتر ما بدعي لنفسي
ولقيت معاك كل اللي بحلم بيه واللي بفكر فيه واللي زمان ياما من زمان كان قلبي مستنيه
............................
في قلبي لمسني وبروحك حاسسني يا اجمل ما شافت وهتشوف عنيا
مفيش حد زيك بيفهمني زيك مفيش حد غيرك حنين عليا
***********
***********

انت كالدمعه في عيني ..اخاف ان تفر مني فافقدها
وان فرت فلن اتردد في وضع يدي لاحتضنها
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
شمس

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عدد المساهمات : 273
تاريخ التسجيل : 09/11/2010



مُساهمةموضوع: رد: موسوعه الادويه الشامله   الجمعة نوفمبر 12, 2010 6:27 pm




فكرة جميلة يايويو

وفعلا هتفيدنا كتير

ومتشكرين ياجميل على الأدوية الجميلة دى

ومتشكرين ليكى انتى كمان يالولو

وربنا يجزيكم كل خير

ومنتظرين المزيد والمزيد
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
ضى القمر lolo
قمر المنتدى ومشرفة الفرقة الثانية
قمر المنتدى ومشرفة الفرقة الثانية
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عدد المساهمات : 1974
تاريخ التسجيل : 20/08/2010
العمر : 25
الموقع : المنصوره




مُساهمةموضوع: رد: موسوعه الادويه الشامله   الخميس ديسمبر 09, 2010 12:05 am

GEMZAR


can suppress bone marrowfunction, which may cause low blood cell counts.GEMZAR may not be appropriatefor some patients.If you are allergic to GEMZAR,tell your doctor because you should not receive it.GEMZAR given for longer than 60minutes or more than once a week has caused increased side effects.You should call your doctorright away if you have any symptoms of infection, such as a fever or chills. Ifyou notice bleeding, unexplained bruising, or symptoms of anemia, contact yourhealthcare team, as these can be symptoms of low blood cell counts.Serious lung problems, sometimesfatal, have been reported with GEMZAR. Tell your healthcare team if you developbreathing problems.There have been reports ofserious kidney or liver damage including failure with GEMZAR treatment,sometimes fatal. If you have had kidney or liver problems or impairment, pleasetell your healthcare team. GEMZAR may not be right for you.You will have regular bloodtests before and during your treatment with GEMZAR. Your doctor may adjust yourdose of GEMZAR or delay your treatment based on the results of your blood testsand on your general condition.If you think you are pregnant,are planning to become pregnant, or are nursing, please tell your healthcareteam.Patients who receive radiationtherapy before, during, or after receiving GEMZAR may sometimes experience moreside effects, especially at the site of the radiation.Tell your doctor if you aretaking other medicines, including prescription and nonprescription medicines,vitamins, or herbal supplements.There is a risk of side effectsassociated with GEMZAR therapy. The most common side effects are low blood cellcounts (red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets); fever; infection;hair loss; tiredness; nausea; vomiting; constipation; diarrhea; rash; shortnessof breath; muscle aches; blood in urine; hearing changes and numbness ortingling in your toes or fingers. These are not all of the side effects ofGEMZAR. Lab work may identify additional side effects. If you have any sideeffect that bothers you or that does not go away, be sure to talk with yourdoctor. Call your healthcare team right away if you have fever or chills. Thesesymptoms could mean you have an infection.If you are pregnant, GEMZAR maycause fetal harm to your unborn baby. It is not known if GEMZAR passes intobreast milk; because of the potential for serious side effects in nursinginfants, discuss breast feeding and GEMZAR with your doctor. The safety andeffectiveness of GEMZAR in children has not been established. Side effects mayinclude:Diarrhea, difficulty breathing, fever, hair loss, inflammation of the mouth,nausea, rash, sleepiness, vomiting



اللهم إنى أسألك الثبات فى الأمر

والعزيمة على الرشد

وأسألك موجبات رحمتك ، وعزائم مغفرتك
......
وأسألك شكر نعمتك ، وحسن عبادتك

وأسألك قلبا سليما ، ولسانا صادقا

وأسألك من خير ما تعلم ، وأعوذ بك من شر ما تعلم
واستغفرك لما تعلم

إنك أنت علام الغيوب


الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
 
موسوعه الادويه الشامله
استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
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