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 Thyroid Disorders

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
THE SPIDER
رئيس مجلس الادارة
رئيس مجلس الادارة
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عدد المساهمات : 1453
تاريخ التسجيل : 15/08/2010
العمر : 26
الموقع : Elmansoura


مُساهمةموضوع: Thyroid Disorders   الأحد نوفمبر 07, 2010 9:21 pm

Definition of Thyroid Disorders

The thyroid gland is small endocrine a butterfly-shaped organ located in the front of the neck, just over the windpipe. It produces iodine-containing hormones which regulate the rate at which body cells use energy and produce heat.
The thyroid release hormones that influence many bodily functions, such as physical growth and development, metabolism, puberty, organ function, fertility and body temperature. These functions depend on two hormones released from the thyroid gland: tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).
The thyroid gland can produce too much of these hormones (hyperthyroidism) or not enough (hypothyroidism). These thyroid hormones play a vital role in the body, thereby influencing all organs. They also determine how fast or how slow the organs should work and when the body systems use energy.

* hyperthyroidism
the person with an overactive thyroid gland,may have an increase in body metabolism, which results in weight loss in spite of an increased appetite, excessive warmth and sweating, noticeably trembling hands, pounding of the heart and, in some cases, bulging eyes. Along with these symptoms, the thyroid gland may swell. This swelling is called a goiter.
Medication is effective in slowing down an overactive thyroid. Because improvement may be only temporary, the physician may decide on more permanent measures, such as eradicating it with radioactive iodine or, less often, surgical removal of the overactive thyroid tissue.

Cause of hyperthyroidism:
overactivity of the thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism),
inflammation of the tissues around the eyes causing swelling, and
thickening of the skin over the lower legs (pretibial myxedema). Most patients with Graves' disease, however, have no
obvious eye involvement. Their eyes may feel irritated or they may look like they are
staring. About one out of 20 people with Graves' disease will suffer more severe eye
problems, which can include bulging of the eyes, severe inflammation, double vision,
or blurred vision. If these serious problems are not recognized and treated, they can
permanently damage the eyes and even cause blindness. Thyroid and eye involvement in Graves' disease generally run a parallel course, with eye problems resolving slowly after hyperthyroidism is controlled.

Symptoms of hyperthyroidism:

Insomnia
Irritability
Nervousness
Unexplained weight loss
Heat sensitivity
Increased perspiration
Thinning of your skin
Warm skin
Fine hair
Brittle hair
Thinning hair
Muscular weakness
Eye changes
Lighter menstrual flow
Decreased menstruation
Rapid heart beat
Hand tremors
Shaky hands
Eye changes
Weak leg muscles

diagnose hyperthyroidism:
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) produced by the pituitary [will be decreased in hyperthyroidism]. Thus, the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism is nearly always associated with a LOW (suppressed) TSH level. If the TSH levels are not low, then other tests must be run.

Thyroid hormones themselves (T3, T4, T7) [will be increased]. It should be obvious to you by know that for a patient to have hyperthyroidism they must have high thyroid hormone levels. Sometimes all of the different thyroid hormones are not high and only one or two of the different thyroid hormone measurements are high. This is not too common, as most people with hyperthyroidism will have all of their thyroid hormone measurements high (except TSH).

Iodine thyroid scan [will show if the cause is a single nodule or the whole gland]


treatment of hyperthyroidism:
Some of the symptoms of hyperthyroidism such as tremor and palpitations which are caused by excess thyroid hormone acting on the cardiac and nervous system can be improved within a number of hours by medications called beta-blockers (e.g., propranolol; Inderal). These drugs block the effect of the thyroid hormone but don't have an effect on the thyroid itself, thus Beta-blockers do not cure the hyperthyroidism and do not decrease the amount of thyroid hormone being produced, they just prevent some of the symptoms. For patients with temporary forms of hyperthyroidism (thyroiditis or taking excess thyroid medications), beta blockers may be the only treatment required. Once the thyroiditis (inflammation of the thyroid gland) resolves and goes away, the patient can be taken off of these drugs.
-Anti-Thyroid Drugs

* hypothyroidism:
A person with too little secretion of thyroid hormone, , has general symptoms of slowing down - coldness, sluggishness, dry skin and scanty hair growth. In more serious cases, there is a characteristic thickening of the skin, a condition called myxedema.
Sometimes a child is born without a thyroid gland. Recognizing and treating this defect early is extremely important to prevent serious problems with both physical and mental development.
Fortunately, deficient production of thyroid hormone in either a child or an adult can be simply and effectively treated by replacing the normal amounts of this chemical the body requires.
common causes of hypothyroidism:
The first is a result of previous (or currently ongoing) inflammation of the thyroid gland which leaves a large percentage of the cells of the thyroid damaged (or dead) and incapable of producing sufficient hormone. The most common cause of thyroid gland failure is called autoimmune thyroiditis (also called Hashimoto's thyroiditis), a form of thyroid inflammation caused by the patient's own immune system. The second major cause is the broad category of "medical treatments". As noted on a number of our other pages, the treatment of many thyroid conditions warrants surgical removal of a portion or all of the thyroid gland. If the total mass of thyroid producing cells left within the body are not enough to meet the needs of the body, the patient will develop hypothyroidism. Remember, this is often the goal of the surgery. But at other times, the surgery will be to remove a worrisome nodule, leaving half of the thyroid in the neck undisturbed. Sometimes (often), this remaining thyroid lobe and isthmus will produce enough hormone to meet the demands of the body. For other patients, however, it may become apparent years later that the remaining thyroid just can't quite keep up with demand. Similarly, goiters and some other thyroid conditions can be treated with radioactive iodine therapy. The aim of the radioactive iodine therapy (for benign conditions) is to kill a portion of the thyroid to [1] prevent goiters from growing larger, or [2] producing too much hormone (hyperthyroidism). Occasionally, (often?) the result of radioactive iodine treatment will be that too many cells are damaged so the patient often becomes hypothyroid a year or two later. This is O.K. and usually greatly preferred over the original problem. There are several other rare causes of hypothyroidism, one of them being a completely "normal" thyroid gland which is not making enough hormone because of a problem in the pituitary gland. If the pituitary does not produce enough Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) then the thyroid simply does not have the "signal" to make hormone, so it doesn't.

Symptoms of hypothyroidism:
Vague symptoms
Thyroid deficiency
Sluggishness
Cold sensitivity
Depression
Forgetfulness
Dry hair
Constipation
Increased menstrual flow
Weight gain
Dry skin


Potential Dangers of Hypothyroidism:
Because the body is expecting a certain amount of thyroid hormone the pituitary will make additional thyroid-stimulating-hormone (TSH) in an attempt to entice the thyroid to produce more hormone. This constant bombardment with high levels of TSH may cause the thyroid gland to become enlarged and form a goiter (termed a "compensatory goiter"). Rarely, complications can result in severe life-threatening depression, heart failure or coma.

the diagnosis of hypothyroidism:
Since hypothyroidism is caused by too little thyroid hormone secreted by the thyroid, is based almost exclusively upon measuring the amount of thyroid hormone in the blood. There are normal ranges for all thyroid hormones which have been calculated by computers which measured these hormones in tens of thousands of people

Treatment of Hypothyroidism:
Hypothyroidism is usually quite easy to treat (for most people)! The easiest and most effective treatment is simply taking a thyroid hormone pill (Levothyroxine) once a day, preferably in the morning. This medication is a pure synthetic form of T4 which is made in a laboratory to be an exact replacement for the T4 that the human thyroid gland normally secretes. It comes in multiple strengths, which means that an appropriate dosage can almost always be found for each patient. The dosage should be re-evaluated and possibly adjusted monthly until the proper level is established. The dose should then be re-evaluated at least annually. If you are on this medication, make sure your physician knows it so he/she can check the levels at least yearly. Note: Just like we discussed above, however, this simple approach does not hold true for everybody. Occasionally the correct dosage is a bit difficult to pin-point and therefore you may need an exam and blood tests more frequently. Also, some patients just don't do well on some thyroid medications and will be quite happy on another. For these reasons you should not be shy in discussing with your doctor your blood hormone tests, symptoms, how you feel, and the type of medicine you are taking. The goal is to make you feel better, make your body last longer, slow the risk of heart disease and osteoporosis...in addition to making your blood levels normal! Sometimes that's easy, when its not, you need a physician who is willing to spend the time with you that you deserve while you explore different dosages other types of medications (or alternative diagnoses).
After about one month of treatment, hormone levels are measured in the blood to establish whether the dose of thyroid hormone which the patient is taking is appropriate





The heart hides what you can’t say but the eyes say what you try to hide


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آلمعآنآإة آلگبرى هي :حين يسقط من
عينيگ إنسآإن مآ ..! لگنّہ لـآ يسقط من قلبگ ..! ۆ يظلُّ معلقاً بين مرآآحل
سقوط آلقلب ۆ سقوط آلعين ۆ تبقى ۆحدگ آلضحية لأحآسيس مُزعجہ ..!تحبّہ ..
لگنّك بينگ ۆ بين نفسگ تحتقره
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الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
 
Thyroid Disorders
استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
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